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Chap. I. 


























Folding . 

Beating and Rolling 


Marking-up and Sawing-in 

Sewing . 



Putting on End Papers . 



Rounding . . 



Drawing-in and Pressing 

Cutting . 

Colouring the Edges 

Gilt Edges 


Preparing for Covering 


Pasting-down . . ^, 

Finishing . 

Calf Colouring 

General Outline . 
































l/^. Kenaissance, inlaid Frontispiece 

^2. Grolier, do. xviii 

U^. Derome xxi 

t 4. Gas9on ^ 

^* 5. Early Italian, inlaid 

6. Maioli do 

. 7. Florentine do 

' 8. Gascon 104 

9. Antique, with gold line introduced . . . . 112 
- 10. Grolier, inlaid, double of frontispiece . . . .125 


Monastic centre block xvii 

Venetian xviii 

Grolier centre xix 

Harleian border xxii 

Boger Payne comer xxiii 

Folding machine 3 

Eenaissance — two comers worked together ... 4 

Rolling machine 6 

Celtic — two comers worked together 7 

Standing press 11 

Hydraidic press 13 

Boomer press 15 

Renaissance centre tool 15 

Sawing-in machine 18 

Gas9on — ^two comers worked together .... 19 




Sewing press 20 

Sewing machine 26 

Kenaissance — centre block 27 

Venetian tool - 31 

Grecian 33 

Trimming machine 37 

Renaissance 39 

Renaissance — ^three tools worked together fonning one . 41 

Roimding machine 43 

Backing machine 45 

Grecian tool 46 

Mill-board cutting machine 49 

Mill-board cutting machine (steam) 50 

Renassiance — three tools worked together forming one . 52 

Screw press 55 

Renaissance block . 56 

Cutting press, plough and knives 58 

Cutting machine (steam) . 61 

Cutting machine (hand) 62 

Celtic centre block ......... 63 

Seventeenth Century block 72 

Gascon block 78 

Persian — ^three tools worked together 82 

Egyptian — emblematical tool 86 

Harleian tool 93 

Venetian 97 

Grolier block 103 

Finishing stove, gas 110 

Monastic centre block 112 

Dentelle border 121 

Cut shewing the stages of progress in finishing a back . . 129 

Grecian — two comers worked together .... 140 

Arming press 142 

Blocking machine 144 

Harleian 147 

Egyptian — two comers worked together . . . 156 


I have not written this book with the idea of 
teaching any of my confreres their business, 
neither do I think that its production will damage 
the trade in a financial point of view ; but I hope 
that the reader, if he have the patience to study 
its pages, will be enabled to know when a book is 
well bound, and to form a judgment on inferior 
work. I do not wish it to be understood that a 
half bound book may not be as well bound as a 
whole bound one, simply because it is only half 
bound; for the one should be as strongly done 
and as well finished as the other ; but I do hope 
that the few following pages may stimulate the 
public to study the binding of their books more 
closely, and give the binder a better chance of 
producing stronger and better finished work at a 
more advanced price. Grood work cannot be done 
at low cost. 

I trust that the reader will bear with one who 

loves his trade. Nothing is more painful to 
witness than the quantity of gaudy but unsound 
bookbinding that is top frequently in the market; 
which the uninformed purchaser is sometimes 
persuaded to believe is work of high class. This 
book ia intended to give the amateur sufficient 
knowledge to enable him to avoid such mistakes 
in his purchases, and at the same time give him 
as much instruction as wiU, if his inclination and 
time permit, enable him to bind his own volumes 
as his wishes and taste may dictate. To this end 
I have endeavoured to explain, in as concise a 
manner as possible, the various branches of the 
trade. This may enable amateurs to do, at least 
what M, J. Groher and many other distinguished 
personages have done — direct the binder for any 
particular style or design; and acquire, hke them, 
fame for their collections. 

If the amateur wishes to bind his own books, 
he must not be deceived by the idea that he will 
not want many tools ; neither must he think that 
a book can be bound properly in a few hours. 
Many books are so bound, under pressing circum- 



stances, in a very short time, but the binder has 
to put himself to great inconvenience thereby, 
and cannot guarantee that his work will be sound 
and good. When a book is hurried, it will keep 
its moisture for some weeks, and there is a risk 
that it will communicate mildew to other books 
when placed amongst them. 

Those who are in the trade, but who have not 
Tiad the opportunity of learning all its various 
l^ranches or methods ; and those who may be in 
remote places, will I trust find this book an assist- 
ance and an aid to them in their labours. 

I have endeavoured in the following chapters, 
step by step, to forward and finish an imaginary- 
book, in the same way that it would be done in 
an " extra shop." There will also be found a 
-collection of various receipts connected with the 
trade, collected by my respected father and myself. 
Should any of my fellow- workmen find anything 
new to them I shall be satisfied, knowing that I 
have done my duty in spreading such knowledge 
as I possess, with the hope that if only a few 
benefit by my endeavours, I shall have contributed 


somewliat to advance the beautiful art of Book- 

I have to record my obligation to those gentle- 
men who have assisted me by courteously de- 
scribing the various machines of their invention 
with which the book is illustrated. 

The object of illustrating this work with en- 
gravings of machines is not that the amateur 
should purchase them, but simply that he may 
know what machinery is used in the trade at the 
present time. 


BOOKBINDISG carries us back to the time when leaden 
tablets with inscribed hieroglyphics were fastened together 
with ringa, which formed what to|tis would be the binding of 
the volumes. We might go even still further back, when 
tUea of baked clay with cuneiform characters were incased 
one within the other, so that if the cover of one were broken 
or otherwise damaged there still remained another, and yet 
another covering ; by which care history has been handed 
down from generation to generation. The binding in the 
former would consist of the rings which bound the leaden 
tablets together, and in the latter, the simple covering formed 
the binding which preserved the contents. 

We must pass on from these, and make another pause, 
when vellum strips were attached together in one continuous 
length with a roller at each end. The reader unrolled the 
one, and rolled the other as he perused the work. Books, 
prized either for their rarity, sacred character, or costliness, 
would be kept in a round box or case, so that the appearance 
of a Hbraiy in Ancient Jemsalem would seem to us as if it 
were a collection of canisters. The next step was the 
fastening of separate leaves together, thus making a back, 
and covering the whole as a protection in a moat simple 


form ; the only object being to keep tbe several leaves in 
connected sequence. I believe tbe most ancient form of 
books formed of separate leaves, will he found in the sacred 
books of Ceylon which were formed of palm leaves, written 
on with a metal style, and the binding was merely a silken 
string tied through one end so loosely as to admit of ea^h 
leaf being laid down flat when turned over. When the 
mode of preserving MS. on animal membrane or vellum in 
separate leaves came into use, the binding was at first only 
a simple piece of leather wrapped round the book and tied 
with a thong. These books were not kept on their edges, 
but were laid down flat on the shelves, and had small cedar 
tablets hanging from them upon which their titles were 

The ordinary books for general use were only fastened 
strongly at the back, with wooden hoards for the sides, and 
simply a piece of leatlier up the back. 

In the sixth century, bookbinding had already taken ita 
plajie as an " Art," for we have the " Byzantine coatings," 
as they are called. They are of metal, gold, silver or copper 
gilt, and sometimes they are enriched with precious stones. 
The monks, during this century, took advantage of the 
immense thickness of the wooden boards and frequently 
hollowed them out to secrete their relics in the cavities. 
Bookbinding was then confined entirely to the monks who 
were the literati of the period. Then the art was neglected 
for some centuries, owing to the plunder and pillage that 
overran Europe, as books were destroyed to get at the 
jewels that were supposed to be hidden in the different 


inthoduction. xvii 

parts of the covering, so that few now remain to show 
how bookbinding was then accomphahed and to what 

We must now pass on to the middle ages, when samples 
of binding were brought from the East by the crusaders, 
and these may well be prized by their owners for their 


delicacy of finish. The monks, who atill held the Art of 
Bookbinding in their hands, improved upon these Eastern 
specimens. Each one devoted himself to a different branch : 
one planed the oaken boards to a proper size, another 
stretched and coloured the leather ; and the work was thus 
divided into branches, as it is now. The task was one of 


great difficulty, seeing how rude were the implements then 
ia use. 

The art of printing gave new life to our trade, and, 
during the fifteenth century bookbinding made great 
.progress on account of the greater facility and cheapness 
with which books were produced. The printer was then 
his own binder; but as books increased in number, book- 
binding became a sepai'ate art-trade of itsel£ This was a 

step decidedly in the right direction. The art improved so 
much, that in the sixteenth century some of the finest 
samples of bookbinding were executed. Morocco having 
been introduced, and fine delicate tools cut, the art was 
encouraged by great families, who, liking the Venetian 
patterns, had their books bound in that style. The annexed 
woodcut will give a fair idea of a Venetian tool During 
this period the French had bookbinding almost entirely in 
their hands, and Mons. Grolier, who loved the art, had his 


D emf folio 




booka bound under his own supervision in the most costly 
maimer, Hia designs consisted of bold gold lines arranged 
geometrically with great accuracy, crossing one another and 
intermixed ■with small leaves or sprays. These were in 
outlines shaded or filled up with closely worked cross lines. 
Not however satisfied with these simple traceries, be 
embellished them still moi-e by staining and painting them 


black and white, so that they formed hands interlacing each 
other in a most graceful manner. Above is a centre block 
of Grolier. It will be seen how these lines entwine, and 
how the small tools are shaded with lines. If the i-eader 
has bad the good fortune to see one of these specimens, has 
he not wondered at the taste displayed ? To the French 
must certainly be given the honour of bringing the art to 
such a perfection, Francis I. and the succeeding monarchs, 
with the French nobiUty, placed the art on such a high 


eminence, that even now we are compelled to look to tlieae 
great masterpieces as models of style. Not only was the 
exterior elaborate in ornament, but the edges were gilded 
and tooled ; and even painted. We must wonder at tlie 
excellence of the materials and the careful workmanship 
which has preserved the bindings, even to the colour of the 
leather, in perfect condition to the present day. 

There is little doubt that the first examples of the style 
now known as " GroKerr " were produced in Venice, under 
the eye of GroHer himself, and according to his own designs; 
and that workmen in France, soon rivalled and excelled 
the early attempts. The work of Maioli nuiy be distinctly 
traced by the bold simplicity and purity of his designs; 
and more especially by the broader gold lines which 
margin the coloured bands of geometric and arabesque 

All books, it must be Tinderstood, were not bound in so 
costly a manner, for we find pigskin, vellum and calf in 
use. The latter was especially preferred on account of its 
peculiar softness, smooth surface, and great aptitude for 
receiving impressions of dumb or blind tooling. It waa 
only towards the latter part of the sixteenth century that 
the English binders began to employ dehcate or fine tooling 

During the seventeenth centmy the uames of Du Sueil 
and Le Gascon were known for the delicacy and extreme 
minuteness of their finishing. Not disdaining the bindings 
of the Italian school, they took from them new ideas ; for 
whilst the Grolier bindings were bold, the Du Sueil and 
Le Gascon more resembled fine lace work of intricate 



design, with harmoniziiig flowers and other objects, from 
which we may obtain a great variety of artistic character. 
During this period embroidered velvet was much in use. 
Then a change took place and a style was adopted which 
by some people would be preferred to the gorgeous bindinga 
of the sixteenth century. The sides were finished quite 
plainly with only a line round the edge of the boards (and 
in some instances not even that) with a coat of arms or 
some badge in the centre. 

Towards the end of the seventeenth century, bookbinding 
began to improve, particularly with regard to forwarding. 
The joints were true and square, and the back was made to 
open more freely. In the eighteenth century the names of 
Derome, Eoger Payne, and others are prominent as masters 
of the craft, and the Harleian style was introduced. 

The plate facing may be fairly estimated as a good 
specimen of Derome. Notice the extreme simplicity and 
yet the symmetry of the design; its characteristic feature 
being the boldness of the corners and the gradual dimi- 
nishing of the scroll work as it nears the centre of the 
panel. Morocco and calf were the leathers used for this 

Hand coloured calf was at this period at its height, and 
the Cambridge calf may be named as a pattern of one of 
the various styles; and one that is approved of by many at 
the present day — the calf was sprinkled all over, save a 
square panel left uijicoloured in the centre of the boards. 

The Harleian style took its name from Harley, Earl of 
Oxford. It was red morocco with a broad tooled border 


and centre panels. We liave the names of various masters 
■who pushed the art forward to very great excellence during 
this century. Baumgarten and Benedict, two Germans of 
considerable note in London ; Maclsinly, from whose house 
also fine work was sent out, and by whom good workmen 
were educated whose specimens almost equal the work of 
their master. There were two other Germans, Kalthoeber 

and Staggemeier, each having his own peculiar style. 
Kalthoeber is credited with having first introduced painting 
on the edges. This I must dispute, as it was done in the 
sixteenth century. To him, however, must certainly be 
given the credit of having discovered tlie secret, if ever 
lost, and renewing it on his best work. We must now 


pass on to Boger Payne, that unfortunate and erring man 
bat clever workman, who lived during the latter part of 
the eighteenth century. His taste may he seen Irom the 
woodcut He generally used small tools and by combining 
them formed a variety of beautifal designs. He cut most 
of these tools himself, either because he could not find a 
tool cutter of sufficient aHll, or that he foxmd it difficult to 
pay the cost. We are told by anecdote, that he drank 
much and lived recklessly; but notwithstanding all his 

irr^ular habits, his name ought to be respected for the 
work he executed. His backs were £rm, and his forwarding 
excellent ; and he introduced a class of finishing that was 
always in accordance with the character or subject of the 
book. His only fault was the peculiar coloured paper with 
which he made his end papers. 


Much has been done to advance the Art of Binding in 
this country by the pubhc exhibitions, especially the latter • 
ones when the eyes of the trade were educated by contem- 
plating the chef d'reuvres of the ancient masters. 

Coloured or fancy calf has now taken the place of the 
hftnd-coloured. Coloured cloth has come so much into use, 
that this branch of the trade alone monopolizes nearly 
three-fourths of the workmen and females employed in 
bookbinding. Many other substitutes for leather have 
been introduced, and a number of imitations of morocco 
and calf are in the market; this, with the use of machinery, 
has made so great a revolution in the trade, that it is now 
divided into two distinct branches — cloth work and extra 

I have endeavoured in the foregoing remarks to raise 
the emtilation of my fellow craftsmen by naming the most 
famous artists of past days; men whose works are most 
worthy of study and imitation. I have refrained &om 
any notice or criticism of the work of my contemporaries; 
but I may venture to assure the lover of good bookbinding 
that as good and sound work, and as careful finish, may be 
obtained in a first-rate house in London as in any city in 
the world. 

In the succeeding chapters, I will endeavour in aa plain 
and simple a way as 1 can to give instructions to the 
amateur and unskilled workman how to hind a hook. 



©^ girt 4 "^oMMmg. 



We commence with folding. It is generally the first 
thing the binder has to do with a book. The sheets are 
■either supplied by the publisher or printer (mostly the 
printer); so, should the amateur wish to have his books in 
sheets, he may get them by asking his bookseller for them. 
It is necessary that they be carefully folded, for unless they 
are perfectly even, it is impossible that the margins (the 
blank space round the print) can be uniform when the 
book is cut. Where the margin is small, as in very small 
prayer books, a very great risk of cutting into the print 
is incurred ; besides, it is rather annoying to see a book 
which has the folio or paging on one leaf nearly at the 
top, and on the next, the print touching the bottom ; so to 
remedy such an evil, the printer having done his duty by 
placing his margins quite true, it remains with the binder 
to perfect and bring the sheet into proper form by folding. 
The sheets are laid upon a table with the signatures (the 
letters or numbers that are at the foot of the first page of 
each sheet when folded) facing downwards on the left hand 
side. Holding a folding-stick in the right hand, the sheet 
is brought over, from right t© left, carefully placing the 



folios together; and if the paper is held up to the Kght^ 
and is not too thick, it can be easily seen through. Holding 
the two together and laying on the table the folder is drawn 
across the sheet, creasing the centre; then, holding the 
sheet down with the folder on the line to be creased, the 
top part is brought over and downwards till the folios or 
the bottom of the letterpress or print is again even. The 
folder is then drawn across, and so by bringing each folio 
together the sheet is done. The process is extremely simple. 
The octavo sheet is generally folded into 4 folds, thus 
giving 8 leaves or 16 pages; a quarto, into 2, giving 4 
leaves or 8 pages, and the sheets properly folded, will have 
their signahcres outside at the foot of the first page. If the 
signature is not on the outside, the amateur may be sure 
that he has turned his sheet inside out. 

With regard to books that have been folded, and issued 
in numbers, they must be pulled to pieces or divided. The 
parts being arranged in order, so that not so much difficulty 
will be felt in collating the sheets, the outside wrapper is 
torn away, and each sheet pulled singly from its neighbour^ 
always looking to see if any thread used in sewing is in 
the centre of the sheet at the back; if so, it must be cut 
with a knife or it will tear the paper. The sheets must 
now be refolded, if they have not been properly done in 
the first instance. Eefolding is not often done save for 
extra work, and must be carefully executed, the previous 
creasing renders the paper liable to be torn in the process. 
Books that have been bound and cut would be rendered 
worse by refolding, and as a general rule they are left 
alone. Bound books are, however, pulled to pieces in the 
same way, always taking care that the thread is cut or 
loose before tearing the sheet away. The groove should 
be knocked down on a flat surface or on a knocking-down 
iron, first screwing it up in the lying press. The groove is 

the projecting part of the book at right angles with the 
back, caused by backing, and is the groove for the back 
edge of the board to work in by a hinge; this is technically 
called the "joint." When all the glue, paper, or leather 

that was on the liack of each sheet is cleared away, the 
book is ready for beating or roUing, 

A folding machine has been introduced into the trade 
that will fold from 1,000 to 2,000 sheets per hour when 

using points, and from 1,500 to 3,000 wlien working to 
lays. They are made for two, tliree or four folds. It does 
very well for cheap work, such as novels, newspapers and 
pamphlets. Tlie woodcut ia from Messrs. Harrild & Sons, 
"Fleet" Works, London; and represents a single feeder 
machine; the lai^er sized ones are used in our largest 
printing establishments. 

A gathering machine has been patented which is of a 
simple but ingenious contrivance for the quick gathering 
of sheets. The usual way to gather, is hy laying pOes of 
sheets upon a long table, and for the gatherer to take from 
each pile a sheet in succession. By the new method a 
round table is made to revolve by machinery, and upon it 
are placed the piles of sheets. As the table revolves the 
gatherer takes a sheet from each pile as it passes him. It 
will at once be seen that not only is space saved, but that a 
number of gatherers may be placed at the table; and that , 
there is no possibility of the gatherers shirking their wor^ I 
as the machine is made to register the revolutions. By , 
comparing the number of sheets with the revolutions of the ■ 
table, the amount of work done can be checked. The makets < 
are Messrs. T. M. Powell & SoN, St. Bride Street, E.C. 




The object of beating or rolling is to make the book as 
solid as possible. For beating, a stone or iron slab, used 
as a bed, and a heavy hammer, are necessary. The stone 
or iron must be perfectly smooth, and should be bedded 
with great solidity. I have in use an iron bed about 2 feet 
square, fitted into a strongly-made box, filled with sand, 
with a wooden cover to the iron when not in use. The 
hammer should be somewhat bell-shaped, and weigh about 
10 pounds, with a short handle, made to^^ the hand. The 
face of the hammer and stone (it is called beating-stone 
whether it be stone or iron), must be kept perfectly clean, 
and it is advisable always to have a piece of paper at 
the top and bottom of the sections when beating, or the 
repeated concussion will glaze them. 

Tlie book should be divided into lots or sections of about 
haJf-an-inch thick, that will be about 15 to 20 sheets, ac- 
cording to the thickness of paper. A section is now. to be 
held between the fingers and thumb of the left hand, rest- 
ing the section on the stone; then the hammer, grasped 
firmly in the right hand, is raised, and brought down with 
rather more than its own weight on the sheets, which must 
be continually moved round, turned over and changed 
about, in order that they may be equally beaten all over. 
By passing the section between the fingers and thumb, it 
can be felt at once, if it has been beaten properly and 
evenly. Great care must be taken that in each blow of 
the hammer it shall have the face fairly on the body of 


the section, for if the hammer is so used that the greatest 
portion of the weight should fall outside the edge of the 
sheets the concussion will break away the paper as if cut 
with a knife. It is perhaps hetter for a beginner to practice 
on some waste paper before attempting to heat a hook; and 
he should always rest when the wrist becomes tired. When 

each section has been beaten, supposing a book has been 
divided into 4 sections, tlie whole four should be beaten 
again, but together. I do not profess a preference to 
beating over rolling because I have placed it first. The 
rolling machine is one of the gi-eatest improvements in 
the trade, but all books should not be rolled, and a book- 
binder, I mean a practical bookbinder, not one who has 
been nearly the whole of his lifetime upon a cutting 


machine, or at a blocking press, and who calls himself 
•one, but a competent bookbinder, should know how and 
when to use the beating hammer and when the rolling 

There are some books, old ones for instance, that should on 
no account be rolled. The clumsy presses used in printing 
at an early date gave such an amount of pressure on the 
type that the paper round their margins has sometimes 
two or three times the thickness of the printed portion. 
At the present time each sheet after having been printed 
is hot-pressed, and thus the leaf is made flat or nearly so, 
and for such work the rolling machine is certainly better 
than the hammer. 

The book is divided into sections as in beating, only not 
fio many sheets are taken — from six upwards, according to 
the quality of the work to be executed. The sheets are 
then placed between tins, and the whole passed between 
the rollers, which are regulated according to the thickness 
•of sections and power required by a screw for the purpose. 
The workman, technically called " EoUer " has to be very 
•careful in passing his books through, that his hand be not 
drawn in as well, for very sad accidents have from time to 
time occurred through the inattention of the EoUer himself 
or of the individual who has the pleasure of applying his 
strength to turning the handle. There are houses in the 
trade where rolling is taken in, so that an amateur may 
^end his books to be rolled : the charge is very smaU. 




To collate, is to ensure that each sheet or leaf ia in 
its proper sequence. Putting the sheets together and 
placing plates or maps requires great attention. The 
sheete mnst run in proper order by the signatures : lettei-s 
being mostly used, but numbers are sometimes substituted. 
Wlien letters are used, the alphabet is repeated as often 
as necessary, doubling the letter as often as a new alpha- 
bet is used, as E, C, with the first alphabet,* and AA, 
BB, CC, or Aa, Eb, C'c, with the second repetition, and 
three letters witli the third, generally leaving out J, V, W. 
Plates, must be trimmed or cut to the proper size befom 
being placed in tlie book, and maps that are to be folded 
must be put on guards. By mounting a map on a guard 
the size of the page it may be kept laid open on the table 
beside the book, which may be opened at any part without 
concealing the map : by this method the map will remain 
convenient for constant reference. This is technically 
called "tlirowing out" a map. 

To collate a book it ia to be held in the right hand, at 
the right top corner, then with a turn of the wrist, the 
back must be brought to the front. Fan the sections out, 
then with the left hand the sections must be biBught back 
to an angle, which will cause the sections when released 
to spring forward, so that the letter on the right bottom 

* The text of a book alwaya 
preliininfljy Jiintter beiog reckoaed 

with R, the title and. 


comer of each sheet is seen, and then released, and the 
next brought into view. When a work is completed in 
more than one volume, the number of the volume is in- 
dicated at the left hand bottom comer of each sheet. I 
need hardly mention that the title should come first, then 
the dedication (if one), preface, contents, then the text, and 
finally the index. The number on the pages will, however,, 
always direct the binder as to the placing of the sheets. 
The book should always be beaten or rolled before placing 
plates or maps, especially coloured ones. 

Presuming that we have a book with half a dozen plates,, 
the first thing after ascertaining that the letter-press is 
perfect, is to see that all the plates are there, by looking- 
to the "List of Plates," printed generally after the 
contents. The plates should then be squared or cut 
truly, using a sharp knife and straight edge. When the 
plates are printed on paper larger than the book, they 
must be cut down to the proper size, leaving a somewhat 
less margin at the back than there will be at the foredge 
when the book is cut. Some plates have to face to the 
left, some to the right, the frontispiece for instance; but 
as a general rule, plates should be placed on the right 
hand, so that on opening the book they all face upwards. 
When plates consist of subjects that are at a right angle 
with the text, such as views and landscapes, the inscription 
should always be placed to the right hand, whether the 
plate face to the right or to the left page. If the plates 
are on thick paper they should be guarded, either by 
adding a piece of paper the same thickness or by cutting. 
a piece of the plate off and then joining the two again 
together with a piece of linen, so that the plate moves on 
the linen hinge: the width between the guard and plate 
must be equal to the thickness of the paper. If the plate 
is almost a cardboard, it is better and stronger if linen be 


placed both back and front. Sliould tlie book consist of 
plates only, sections may be made by placing two plates and 
two guards together, and sewing througli the centre between 
the guards, leaving of course a space between the two guards, 
which will form the back. With regard to maps that have 
to be nioiinted, it is better to mount thein on tlie finest 
linen, aa it takes up the least room in tbe thickness of the 
book. It should be cut a little larger than the map itself, 
with a further piece left, on wliich to mount the extra piece 
of paper, so that the map may be thrown out aa before 

The map should be trimmed at its back first, then pasted 
with rather thin paste, the pasting board removed and the 
linen laid on, then gently rubbed down and turned over, eo 
that the map comes top, the white paper should then be 
placed a little away from the map, and the whole tlienioc/i 
ralhcd down, and, finally laid out flat to dry. To do this 
work, the paste must be clean, free from all lumps and 
used very evenly and not too thickly, or when dry, every 
mark of the brush will be visible. When the map is dry 
it should be trimmed all round and folded to its proper 
size, viz. — a trifle smaller than the book will be when ciit. 
If it is left larger the folds will naturally be cut away, and 
the only remedy will be a new map, which means a new 
copy of the work. For aU folded maps or plates a cor- 
responding tliickness must be placed in tbe backs where 
the maps go, or the foredge will be thicker thau the back. 
Pieces of paper called guards, are folded from \ inch to 
1 inch in width, according to the size of the book, and 
placed in the back, and sewn through as a section. Great 
care must be taken that these guards are not folded t«o 
lai-ge, so as to overlap the folds of the map, if they do so, 
the object of their being placed there to make the tliick- 
ness of the back and foredge ec^ual will be defeated. 


In a great measure, the whole beauty of the inside work 
Tests in properly collating the work, and in guarding maps, 
and placing the plates. In pasting in any single leaves or 
plates, a piece of waste paper should always be placed on 
the leaf or plate the required distance from the edge to be 

pasted, so that in pasting, the leaf is pasted straight. It 
takes no longer to lay the plate down upon the edge of a 
board with a paper on the plate, than it does to take the 


plate in the left liarnl, and tip and play with the right 
Land middle finger; by the former method a proper amount 
of paste is deposited evenly on the plate and it is pa: 
in a straight line; by the latter method, it is pasted in si 
places thiukly, and in some places none at all. I have 
often seen books with the plates sticking to the book 
nearly half way up to its foredge, and thus spoilt, only 
through the slovenly way of pasting. After having placed 
the plates, the amateur should go tlirough them again when 
dry, to see if they adhere properly, and break or fold them 
over up to the pasting, with a folding stick, so that they 
will lie flat when the book is open, I must again call 
attention to coloured plates. They should be looked after 
during the whole of binding, especially after pressing. 
The amount of gum that ia put on the surface, which i 
very easily seen by the gloss, causes them to stick to the 
letter-press : shoidd they so stick, do not try to tear them 
apart, but warm a polishing iron and pass it over the plate 
and letter-press, placing a piece of paper between the iron 
and the book to avoid diit. The beat and moisture will 
soften the gum, and the .surfaces can then be very easily 
separated. By rubbing a little ipoiodered Frerich duiik over 
the coloured plates hcfoj-e sticking them in, these ill effects ' 
■wUl he avoided. 

It sometimes happens that the whole of a book is com- 
posed of single leaves, as the "Art Journal." Such a book 
should be collated properly, and the plates placed to their 
respective places, squared and broken over, by placing a 
straight edge or runner about J inch from its back edge, 
aud running a folder under the plate, thus lifting it to tlie 
edge of the runner. The whole book should then 
pressed for a few hours, taken out, aud the back glued up; 
the back having been previously roughed with the side 
edge of the saw. To glue such a back up, the book ia 


jilaced in the lying press between boards, \yitli the back 
projecting about ^ of an incb, the saw ia then drawn over 
it, with it3 side edge, so that the paper is aa it were rasped. 
The back ia then sawn in properly, as explained in tlie 
next chapter, and the whole back is glued. "When dry, the 


book IS separated into di\isions or sections of fjur six, or 
eight leaves according to the thickness of the paper, and 
■each section is then o^ercist oi over sewn along its whole 
length, the thread bi,inf fiatened at the bead and tail (or 
top and Ixittom) thus lilIi scLtion I'i made independent of 


its neighbour. The sections should then be gently struck 
along the back edge with a hammer against a knocking- 
down iron ; thia is to imbed the thread into the paper, or 
the back will be too thick. The thread shonld not be 
struck 80 hard as to cut the paper, or break the thread, but 
very gently. Two or tliree sections may be taken at a time. 

After having placed the plates, the book should be put 
into the press (standing or otherwise) for a few hours. A 
standing press is used in all bookbinding shops, but if the 
amateur has not got one, of course the lying press will do. 
A very good substitute is a strong copying press. When, 
taken out of the press the book is ready for " marking up" 
if for flexible sewing, or for being sawn in, if for ordinary 

ISTEHLEAVING. It is sometimes req^uired to place a piece 
of writing paper between each leaf of letter-press, either 
for notes or for a translation : in such a case, the book 
must be properly beaten or roUed, and each leaf cut up 
with a band-knife, both head and foredge ; the writiug 
paper having been cliosen, must be folded to the size of 
the book and pressed. A single leaf of writing paper is 
now to be fastened in the centre of each section, and a 
folded leaf placed to every folded letterpress leaf, by in- 
serting the one within the other, leaving to every other 
section a folded writing paper outside, putting them all 
level with the head; the whole book should then be well 

If by any chance there should be one sheet in duplicate 
and another missing, by returning the one to the publisher 
of the book, the missing sheet is generally replaced ; this 
of course has reference only to books of a recent date. 

The two former woodcuts in this chapter are from 
Messrs. Harrild and Soss' catalogue, "Fleet" Works, 
London. Just before sending this to press, another stand- 

COLLATraC. 15 

ing press of American ioventioii has come under my notice ; 
it will be seen that it acts on an entirely new principle, 
-J having two horizontal screws 

- ^^^^SskA^a instead of one perpendicular. 
BH^^^HB^l The power is first applied by 
I MsHH nfl l^^^*^ ^"'^ finally by a lever 
and ratchet vrheel in the 
centre. A pressure guage is 
affixed to each press, so that 
the actual power exerted may 
be ascertained as the opera- 
tion proceeds. The press can 
be had from Messrs. Ladd 
I I I and Co., 116, Queen Victoria 

I I I Street, KG. ; and they claim 

^^^^HgBV that it gives a pressure equal 
^^^3^Bj|^HHI^Bk to the hydraulic press, with- 
^H^^HBJ^^SIij^^^ *'"'' ^^7 <^^ the hydraulic com- 

B003IEB FKEBS, plicatioUS. 

The first woodcut is the ordinary standing press, the 
second, the hydraulic. 


J \ 11 ^ 
'III ^ 




The booka having been in the press a sufficient time, i 
for a night, they are taken out, and run through e 
(collated) to make sure that they are all coiTect. A book \ 
ia then taken and knocked straight both head and back I 
and put in the lying press between boards, projecting from J 
them about J inch; some binders prefer cutting boards, I I 
■prefer pressing boards, and I should advise the use of I 
them, as the -whole can be knocked up together. They J 
-should be held between the fingers of each hand, and the J 
back and head knocked alternately on the cheek of the 
press. The boards are then draivn back the recLuiied 
distance from the back of the book : the book and boards 
must now be held tightly with the left hand, and the 
whole carefully lowered into the press ; the right hand 
regulating the screws, which should then be screwed up 
tightly. The book is now q\iite straight, and firmly fixed 
in the press, and we have to decide if it is to he sewn 
flexibly or not. If for fleidhh binding the book is not 
io he saimi in, but marked; the difference bemg, that with 
the former the cord is outside the slicels; -vvith the latter tlie 
cord is imbedded in the hack in the cut or groove made by 
the saw. We will take the flexible first, and suppose that 
the book before us is an ordinary 8vo. volume and that ifc ■ 
is to be cut all round. 

The back should be divided into six efjual portion!^ I 


leaving the bottom, or tail, a half inch longer than the- 
reat, simply because of a curious optical illusion, by 
which, if the spaces were all equal in width, the bottom 
one would appear to be the smallest, although accurately 
of the same width as the rest. This curious effect may be 
tested on any framed or mounted print. A square is now 
to be laid upon the back exactly to the marks, and marked 
pretty black with a lead pencil; the head and tail must 
now be sawn in to imbed the chain of the kettle stitch, 
at a distance sufficient to prevent the thread being divided 
by accident in cutting. In flexible work great accuracy is 
absolutely necessary throughout the whole of the work, 
especially in the marking up, as the bands on which the 
book is sewn will be visible when covered. It will be 
easily seen if the book has been knocked up straight by 
laying the square at the head when the book is in the 
press, and if it is not straight, it must be taken out and 
corrected. If the book is very small, as for instance a 
small prayer book, it is marked up for five bands, but only 
sewed on three; the other two being fastened on as false 
bands when the book is ready for covering. 

When the book is to be "sawn in," it is marked up as for 
flexible work, but the back is sawn both for the bands and 
kettle stitch,* with a tenon saw. In choosing the saw, it 
should be one with the teeth not spread out too much; and 
if the amateur means to go into bookbiuding extensively, 
he should have two of different widths. Care must be 
taken that the saw does not enter too deeply, and he must, 
in all cases, be guided in the depth hy the thiclmess of the 
cord to he used. The size of the book must determine the 
thickness of the cord, as the larger the book, the stronger 
and thicker must be the cord. Suitable cord is to be pur- 

* See page 21. 

maekhjg up and sawisg in. 

chased at all tlie book-binder's material shops, and it ia 
known by the size of the book, such as 12mo., 8vo., 4to. coM. 
I think nothing looks worse than a book with great holes 
in the back, sometimes to he seen when the book is opened, 
all through the inattention of the workmen. Besides, it 
causes great inconvenience to the forwarder if the coi-da 
are loose, and the only thing he can do in such a case, is 
to cram a lot of glue into the grooves to keep the cord in 
its place. If, on the other hand, the saw cuts are not deep 

sAivraa-iii MACHINE. 

enough, tlie cord will stand out from the back, and be seen 
distinctly when the book is finished, if not remedied by 
extra pieces of paper between the bands when lining up. 
It is better to use double tliin cord, instead of one thick 



oae for large books, because the two cords ■will lie and 
imbed tbemselves la the back, whereas one large one will 
not, unless very deep and wide saw cuts be made. Large 
folios should be sawn on six or seven bands, but five for an 
8vo, ia the right number, from which all other sizes can be 
Tegulated, Saw benches have been introduced by various 
firms. We give one of Messrs. Eicbmonds & Co,, Kirby 
Street, Hatton Garden. They can be driven either by steam 
or foot. It will be seen that the saws are circular, and can 
be shifted on the spindle to suit the various sized books. 
As the books tbemselves are slid along the table on the 
saws, the advantage will be very great in a large shop 
where much work of one size is done at a tima 




rLEXiBLE work. The "sewing press" ( 
screws, and a bcaiii or ci'oss iar, round whicli are fastened 
five or more cords, called lay cords. Five pieces of cord 
cut from the ball, in length, about foiu? times the thick- 
ness of the book, are fastened to the lay cords by slip' 



knots; the other euda being fastened to small pieces of 
metal called keys, by twisting the ends round twice and 
then a half hitch. The keys are tlien passed tlirougli the 



slot in the bed of the "press," and the beam screwed up 
rather tightly; but loose enough to allow the lay cords 
to move freely backwards or forwards. Having the book 
on the bed of the press with the back towards the sewer, 
a few sheets (better than only one) are laid agaiQst the 
eords, and they are arranged exactly to the marks made 
on the back of the sections. When quite true and per- 
pendicular, they should be made tight by screwing the 
beam up. It will be better if the cords are a little to 
the right of the press, so that the sewer may get her or 
his left arm to rest better on the press. 

The first and last sections are first to be overcast with 
.cotton. The first sheet is now to be laid against the 
bands, and the needle introduced through the kettle-stitch 
hole on the right of the book, which is the head. The 
left hand being within the centre of the sheet, the needle 
is taken with it, and thrust out on the left of the mark 
made for the first band; the needle being taken with the 
right hand, is again introduced on the right of the same 
band, thus making a comjplete circle round the band. This 
is repeated with each band in succession, and the needle 
brought out of the kettle-stitch hole on the left or tail 
of the sheet. A new sheet is now placed on the top, and 
treated in a similar way, by introducing the needle at the 
left end or tail; and when taken out at the right end or top, 
the thread must be fastened by a knot to the end, hanging 
from the first sheet, which is left long enough for the purpose. 
A third sheet having been sewn in like manner,* the needle 
brought out at the kettle-stitch, must be thrust between 
the two sheets first sewn, and drawn round the thread, thus 

* As each thread is terminated, another must be joined thereto, so 
that one length of thread is, as it were, used for a book. The knots 
must be made very neatly, and the ends cut off, or they will be visible 
in the sheet by their bulk. 


featening each sheet to its neighbour by a kind of chain 
stiteh. I believe the term "kettle stitch" ia only a corrup- 
tion of "catch-up stitch," as it catches each section as sewTi 
in succession. This class of work must be done very neatly 
and evenly, but it is easily done ivith a little practice and 
patience. Tliis is the .strongest sewing executed at the 
present day, but it is very seldom done, as it takes three or 
four times as long as the ordinary sewing. The thread 
must be drawn tightly each time it is passed round the 
band, and at the end properly fastened off at the kettle- 
Btitch, or the sections will work loose in course of time. 
Old books were always sewn in this manner, and when 
two or double bands were used, the thread was twisted 
twice round one, on sewing one section and twice round 
the other on sewing the next. In some cases even the 
" head-baud " was worked at the same time, by fastening 
other pieces nf leather for the head and tail, and making 
it the catch-up stitch as well. When the head-baud was 
worked in sewing, the book was, of course, not afterwards 
cut at the edges. When this was done, wooden boards were 
■used instead of mill boards, and twisted leather instead of 
cord, and when the book was covered, a groove was made 
between each double band. This way is still imitated by 
sticking a second band or cord alongside the one made in 
sewing, before the book is covered. The cord for flexible 
work is called a "flexible cord," and is twisted tighter and 
is stronger than any other. In all kinds of sewing I advise 
the use of Marshall's thread, not because there is no other 
of good manufacture, but, I have tried several kinds, and 
Marshall's has always proved to be the best. The tliickneaa. 
of the cord must always be in proportion to the size and 
thickness of the book, and the thickness of the thread must 
depend on the sheets, whether they be half sheets or whole 
flbects. If too thick a thread is used, the swelling (thi 



>d m 

LBt ■ 

be H 


rising caused in the back by the thread) will be too much, 
and it will be impossible to make a proper rounding or get 
a right size " groove " in backing. If the sections are thick 
or few, a thick thread must be used to give the thickness 
necessary to produce a good groove. 

If the book is of moderate thickness, the sections may be 
knocked down, by occasionally tapping them with a piece 
of wood loaded at one end with lead, or a thick folding- 
stick may be used as a substitute. I must again call par-^ 
ticular attention to the kettle-stitch. The thread must not 
be drawn too tight in making the chain, or the thread will 
break in hacking; but still, a proper tension must be kept or 
the sheets will wear loose. The last sheet should be fas- 
tened with a double knot round the kettle-stitch two or 
three sections down, and that section must be sewn all 
along. When I have valuable books to bind, I always use 
silk, as it is much stronger and more pliant than thread; 
but I do not think that it is, or will be, at aU necessary for 
the amateur to use silk ; I only mention it as a fact. The 
next style of sewing and most generally used throughout 
the trade is the ordinary method. 

Ordinary Sewing is somewhat different, inasmuch as 
the thread is not twisted round the cord, as in flexible work 
when the cord is outside the section. In this method the 
cord fits into the saw cuts. The thread is simply passed 
over the cord, not round it, otherwise the principle of sew- 
ing is the same, that is, the thread is passed right along the 
section, out of the holes made, and into them again; the 
kettle-stitch being made in the same way. This style of 
work has one advantage over flexible work, because the 
back of the book can be better gilt. In flexible work, the 
leather is attached with paste to the back, and is flexed, and 
bent, each time the book is opened, and there is great risk 
of the gold splitting away or being detached fix)m the 


leather in wear. In books sewn in the ordinary metliod, 
they are made with a hollow or loose back, and when the 
book is opened, the crease in the back is independent of 
the leather covering; the lining of the back only is creased, 
and the leather keeps its perfect fonn, by reason of the 
lining giving it a spring outwards. Morocco is always used 
for flexible work; calf being without a grain is not suit- 
able, as it would show all tlie creases in the back made by 
the opening. This class of sewing is excellent for books 
that do not require so much strength, such as library bind- 
ings, but for a dictionary or the like, where constant reference 
or daily use is required, I sliould sew a book flexibly, A 
great many binders sew theii- books in the ordinary way, 
ond paste the leather directly to the back, and so make a 
tight back, and thus pass it for flexible work ; but I do not 
think any respectable house would do so. A ioolc iJtat has 
been sewed jkxibly will iwt have any saw-cut in ike hack, so 
that on examination by opening it wide, it will at once be 
seen if it is a real JlexiUe iinding or not. 

There is another mode called "flexible not to show." 
The book is marked up in the usual way as for flexible, 
and is also slightly scratched on the band marks with the 
saw; hut not deep enough to go through the sections. A 
thin cord ia then taken doubled for each band, and the 
book is sewn the ordinary flexible way; the cord is knocked 
into the back in forwarding, and the leather may be stuck 
on a hollow back with bands, or it may be stuck to the 
back itself without bands. 

However simple it may appear in description to sew a 
book, it requires great judgment to keep down the swelling 
of the book to the proper amount necessary to form a good 
backing groove and no more. In order to do this, tlie 
sheets must from time to time be gently tapped down vnth 
a piece of wood or a heavy folding-stick, and great car© 



must be observed to avoid drawing the fastening of the 
kettle-stitch too tight, or the head and tail of the book 
will be thinner than the middle; this fault once com- 
mitted has no remedy. 

If the sections are very thin, or in half sheets, they 
may, if the book is very thick be sewn " two sheets onJ' 
The needle is passed from the kettle-stitch to the first 
band of the first sheet and out, then another sheet is 
placed on the top, and the needle inserted at the first 
band and brought out at band No. 2, the needle is again 
inserted in the first sheet and in at the second band and 
out at No. 3 : thus treating the two sections as one, in 
this way it is obvious that only half as much thread will 
be in the back. With regard to books that have had the 
heads cut, it will be necessary to open each sheet carefully 
up to the back before it is placed on the press, otherwise 
the centre may not be caught, and two or more leaves will 
fall out after the book is bound. 

The first and last sections of every book should be over- 
cast for strength. With regard to books that are composed 
of single leaves they are treated of in Chapter III. They 
are to be overcast and each section treated as a section of 
an ordinary book, the only difference being, that a strong 
lining of paper should be given to the back before cover- 
ing, so that it cannot " throw up." 

When a book is sewn, it is taken from the sewing press 
by slackening the screws which tighten the beam, so that 
the cord may be easily detached from the keys and lay 
cords. The cord should be left at its full length until the 
end papers are about to be put on, then it may be reduced 
to about 3 inches. 

Bbehmeb's patent wire book and pamphlet sewing ma- 
chine, is a new introduction well adapted to the use of the 
-stationer, where thick and hand-made paper will bear such a 

26 SEivrsc. 

method. It ■will not, in my opinion, ever be found eligible 
for library or standard books. The high price of one-hun- 
dred and fifty guineas will keep it out of the trade gene- 
TaUy; but it ia to be feared that a sufBcient number of really 
good hooka may he sewn with it to caiise embarrassment 
to the firat-rate binder, who will be bafHed in making good 
work of books which may have been damaged by the new- 

The novelty of tliis machine is, that the hook is sewn 
■with wire instead of thread. The machine is fed with 
wire from spools by small steel rollers, which at each 
revolution supply exactly the length of wire required to 
form little staples with two legs. Of these staples, the 
machine makes at every revolution as many as are required 
for each sheet of the book that is being sewn— generally two 
or three, or more, as necessary. These wires or staples are 

;re ^H 


forced through the sections from the inside of the folds; and 
as the tapes are stietched,aiid held by clasps exactly opposite 
to each staple-forming and inserting apparatus, the legs of 
each staple penetrate the tapes, and project through them 
to a sufficient distance to allow of their being bent inwards 
towards each other, and pressed firmly gainst the tapes. 
With pamphlets, copy-books, catalogues, &c., no tape is used, 
the staples themselves being sufiicient. About two-thou- 
sand pamphlets ot sheets can be sewn in one hour. 






The end papers should always be Timde, that is, the coloured 
paper pasted to a white one ; so the style of binding must 
decide what kind of ends are to be used. I give a slight 
idea of the kinds of paper used and the method of making 


Is a paper used generally for half-calf bindings, with a 
sprinkled edge, or as a change, half-calf, gilt top. The 
paper is stained various shades and colours in the making, 
and I think derives its name from a binder who first used 
it, and being liked by the trade, they have distinguished 
the paper by calling it "Cobb paper" which name it has 
kept. Brown is the colour most in use. 


This is a paper, one side of which is prepared with a 
layer of colour, laid on with a brush very evenly. Some 
kinds are left dull and others are glazed. The darker 
colours of this paper are generally chosen for Bibles or 
books of a religious character, and the lighter colours for 
the cloth or case work. There are many other kinds which 
may be put into extra bindings with very good efltect, and 


will exercise the taste of the workman. For example, a 
good cream when of fine colour and good quality will look 
Tery well in a morocco book with either cloth or morocco • 


This paper has the colour disposed upon it in imitation* 
of marble ; hence its name. It is produced by sprinkKng 
properly prepared colours upon the surface of a size, made- 
either of a vegetable emulsion, or of a solution of resinous 
gum. It is necessary in either preparing an original design 
or in matching an example, to remember that the veins are 
the first splashes of colour thrown on the size, and assume- 
that form in consequence of being driven back by the suc- 
cessive colours employed. There is no doubt that marbled 
paper was first imported from Holland wrapped round 
the small parcels of Dutch toys. After being carefully 
smoothed out, it was sold to bookbinders at a very high 
price, who used it upon their extra bindings, and if the 
paper was not laige enough they were compelled to join it. 
After a time the manufacture was introduced into England,, 
but either the colours are not prepared the same way, or 
the paper itself may not be so suitable. The colours 
are not brought out with such vigour and beauty, nor do 
they stand so well, as on the old Dutch paper. Some secret 
of the art has been lost, and it baffles our ablest marblers 
of the present day to re-produce many of the beautiful ex- 
amples that may be seen in some of the old books. Marbled 
paper may be purchased from Messrs. Eadie & Son, Queen 
Street, W.C., or any of the binders' material sellers, from 
2s. 9d. per quire to a much higher price, according to quality 
and size. I mention Messrs. Eadie & Son, because they 
have succeeded in getting a vein of gold intermixed with 
the colours, which has a most curious but excellent effect. 



May be bought at fancy stationers; tlie variety is so 
great that description is impossible, but { 
judgment should always be used by studying the style and 
colour of binding. The Frencli binders are veiy fond of 
it, and some are certainly of a most elalKirate and gorgeous 
description, each house having its own favourite pattern 
and style. 


Thig kind the amateur can easily make for himself.' , 
Some colour should be mixed with paste and a little 8 
until it is a little thicker than cream. It should then be 
spread upon two sheets of paper with a paste brush. The 
sheets should then be laid together with their coloured 
surfaces facing each other, and when separated tliey will 
have a curious wavy pattern on them. The paper should 
then be hung up to dry on a string stretched across the 
room, and when dry, glazed with a hot iron. A great deal 
of it is used in Grermany for covering books. Green, reds 
and blues have a very good effect. 

After having decided upon what kind of paper is to be 
used, two pieces are cut and folded to the size of the boob, 
leaving them a trifle larger, especially if the book has been 
already cut. Two pieces of white paper must he prepared 
in the same way. Having them ready, a white paper is 
laid down, folded, on a pasting board (any old millboard 
kept for this purpose) and pasted with moderately thin 
paste very evenly, the two fancy papers are laid on the 
top quite even with the back or folded edge, the top fancy 
paper is now to be pasted and the otlier white laid on that; 

lid on that; ^^m 


they must now be taken from the board, and after a squeeze 
in the press between pressing boards, taken out, and hung 
up separately to dry. This will cause one half of the white 
to adhere to one half of the marble or fancy paper. When 
they are dry, they should be folded in the old folds and 
pressed for about a quarter of an hour. When there are 
more than one pair of ends to make, they need not be 
made one pair at a time, but ten or fifteen pairs may be 
•done at once, by commencing with the one white, then two 
fancy, two white, and so on, imtil a suificient number have 
been done, always pressing them to ensure the surfaces 
adhering properly ; then hang them up to dry. When dry, 
press again, to make them quite flat As this is the first 
time I speak about pasting, a few hints or remarks on the 
proper way will not be out of place here. Always draw 
the brush well over the paper and away from the centre, 
towards the edges of the paper. Don't have too much 
paste in the brush, but just enough to make it slide well. 
Be careful that the whole surface is pasted, remove all 
hairs or lumps from the paper, or they will mark the book. 
Finally, never attempt to take up the brush from the paper 
before it is well drawn over the edge of the paper, or it will 
stick to the brush and turn over, with the risk of pasting 
the under side. While they are pressing we will proceed 
with further forwarding our book. 




The first and last sheet of every book must be pasted up or 
down, it is called by both terms, and if the book has too 
much swelling, it miist be tapped down gently with a ' 
hammer. Hold the book tightly at the foredge with the 
left hand, knuckles down, rest the back on the press, and hit 
the hack with the hammer to the required thickness. If 
the book is not held tightly a portion of the back wiH slip 
in and the hollow will always be ■visible ; so I advise that 
the back be knocked flat on the " lying press " and placed 
in it without boards, so that the back projects. Screw the 
press up tightly, so that the sheets cannot slip. A knocking- 
down iron should then he placed against the book on its left 
side, and the hack hammered against it ; the "slips" or cords 
pulled tight, each one being pulled with the right hand; the 
left holding the alips tightly against the book so that they 
cannot be pulled through. Should it happen that a shp is 
pulled out, nothing remains but to re-sew the book, except, 
perhaps, if it is a thin one, it may possibly be re-inserted 
with a large needle. But this will not do the book any good. 
The slips being pulled tight, the first and la^t section 
should be pasted to those next them. To do this, lay the 
book on the edge of the press and tlu^ow the top section 
back, lay a piece of waste paper upon the next section 
about ^ or J inch from the back, according to the size of 
the book, and paste the space between the back and the 




Tpaste paper, using generally the second finger of right 
hand, holdii^ the paper down with the left. When pasted, 
the waste paper is removed, and the section put back evenly 
with the back of the book, which 13 now turned over care- 
fully that it may not shift; and the other end treated in the 
same manner. A weight should, then be put on the top, or 
if more than a-single book, one should lie on the top of the 
other, back and foredge alternately, each book to be half an 
inch within the forec^e of the book next to it ; with a few 
pressing boards on the top one. Wlien dry the end papers 
.are to be pasted on. 




A single leaf of white paper, somewhat thicker than the- 
paper used for making the ends, is to be cut, one for each- 
side of the book. The end papers are to be laid down on a 
Tjoard, or on a piece of paper on the press to keep it clean, 
with the pasted or made side uppermost, the single leaves- 
on the top. They should then be fanned out evenly to a 
proper width, about J of an inch for an 8vo., a piece of waste 
paper put on the top, and their edges pasted. The slips 
thrown back, the white fly is put on the book, a little away 
from the back, and the made ends on the top even with the 
back, and again left to dry with the weight of a few boards 
on the top. 

If, however, the book or books are very heavy or large, 
they should have "joints" of either bookbinders' cloth or of 
leather of the same colour as the leather with which the book 
is to be covered. Morocco is mostly used for the leather 
joints. If the joints are to be of cloth, it may be added 
either when the ends are being put on, or when the book is 
ready for pasting down. If the cloth joint is to be put on 
now, the cloth is cut from 1 to 3 inches, according to the- 
size of book, and folded quite evenly, leaving the side of the 
cloth to go on the book the width intended to be glued : 
that is, a width of 1 inch should be folded f one side, 
leaving J the other, and putting the i inch width on the 
book. The smallest fold is now glued, the white fly put on. 


and the fancy paper on the top ; the difference being, that 
the paper instead of being made double or folded is single, 
or instead of taking a paper double the size of the book and 
folding it, it is cut to the size of the book and pasted all 
over. It will be better if the marble paper be pasted and 
the white put on and well rubbed down, then lay them 
between mill-boards to dry. A piece of waste or brown 
paper should be slightly fastened at the back over the whole, 
turning the cloth down on the book to keep it clean and 
prevent it from getting damaged. 

^ If, however, the cloth joint is to be put on after the book 
is covered, the flys and ends are only edged on with paste to 
the book just sufficient to hold them while it is being bound; 
and when the book is to be pasted down, the ends are lifted 
from the book by placing a thin folding stick between the 
ends and book and running it along, when they will come 
away quite easily. The cloth is then cut and folded as 
before and fastened on, and the ends and flys properly pasted 
in the back. 

Morocco joints are always put in after the book is covered, 
but I prefer that if cloth joints are to go in the book they 
be always put in at the same time as the ends; care being 
taken that the ends are quite dry after being made before 
attaching them, or the dampness will affect the beginning 
and end of the book and cause it to wrinkle. 

When the ends are quite dry the slips should be un- 
ravelled and scraped, using a bodkin for the unravelling, 
and the back of a knife for the scraping. The object of 
this is, that they may with greater ease be passed through 
the holes in the mill-board and the bulk of the cord be more 
evenly distributed and beaten down, so as not to be seen 
after the book has been covered. 






Is the book to have a gilt top ? marbled or gilt edges ? or 
is it to be left uncut ? These questions must be settled 
before anything further is done. If the book is to be un- 
cut or have a gilt top, the rough edges should be taken away 
with a very sharp knife or shears : this process is called 
" trimming." 

The book having been knocked up straight is laid on a 
piece of wood planed smooth kept for this purpose, and 
called a "trimming board." It is then compassed from 
the back as a guide, a straight edge laid on the compass 
holes, and the foredge cut. The object of trimming is to 
make the edges true, the amount taken off to be only the 
rough and dirty edges, thus leaving the book as large as 

The French put their books in the press between boards 
and rasp the edges, but this method has not only the dis- 
advantage of showing all the marks of the rasp, but also of 
leaving a roughness which catches and retains the dust in 
proportion to the soft or hard qualities of the paper. 

Another method is to put the book into the cutting 
press, and cut the overplus off with a plough, having a 
cii'cular knife, called a ''round plough." This is used 
when a number of books are being done together. I 
prefer to use the straight edge and knife for the foredge 
and tail, and to cut the top when the book is in boards. 

TRnnoNG. 37 

A very good trimming macliine has been invented by 
Messrs. Richmond & Co., of Kii-by Street, Hatton Garden. 
The bed rises and falls, with the books upon it, instead of 
the knife deaeending iipon the work, as in the cutting ma- 
chines; and the gauges are so arranged, that t!ie foredge of 

one pile of books, and the tails of another, can be cut at 
one operation, and it is guaranteed by the makers that the 
knife will leave a clean and perfectly trimmed edge. 
Before leaving the .subject of triniming, I will insert a 


few lines from that veil kno^vn paper ihe AtJicnaiim, as 
how a book should be trimmed, and so much do I agree 
with its writer, that I have the quotation, iu large type, 
hung up ill my shop as a constaut caution and instruction , 
to the workmen : — 

(M. 2138, Oei. llth, 1868.) 

" Mr. Editor, — If you think that the Athcrmum is read 
or seen by any members of that class of ruthless binders, 
who delight in destroying the appearance of every pamph- 
let and book that comes into their hands, by trimming 
or ploughing its edges to the quick (and almost always 
craokedly), I beg you to insert this appeal to the monsters 
I have named, to desist fi-om their barbarous practices, to 
learn to reverence the margin of a book, and never to take 
from it a hair's breadth more than is absolutely needful. 
The brutality with which the fair margins of one's loved 
volumes are treated by these mangling wretches with their 
awful plough knives is shocking to behold. The curses of 
book lovers are daily heaped on their backs, but they go on 
Tunning-a-muck, heedless of remonstrance, remorseless, ever 
sacrificing fresh victims. Had we a paternal government, 
one might hope for due punishment of some of tliese 
offenders : one at least might be ploughed up the back, 
another up the front, as an example and a terror to the 
trade; but as this wholesome correction cannot unhappily 
be administered, will you give expression to the indigna-- 
tion of one amongst a milliou sufferer's for yeara from these 
trimmers' savageries, and let them know what feelings 
their reckless cruelty awakens in many breasts? One of 
the largest houses in London has just sent me home fifty 
copies of an essay, intended as a pi'eseut for a friend. 
They have been trimmed, and been rained. Would that 
I could have the trimming of their trimmer's hair and 


•ears; also his nose! I don't think his best friend -would 
know him when I had done with him. 

But, Sic, we live in a philanthropic age, and are bound 
to foi^ve our enemies and try to reform the worst crimi- 
nals. I therefore propose a practical measure to win these 
book trimmers from their enormities ; namely, that fifty at 
least of yoax readers, who care for book margins, should 
subscribe a guinea each for a challenge cup, to be competed 
for yearly, and held by that firm wliich, on producing copies 
-of all books and pamphlets trimmed by it during the year, 
.shall be adjudged to have disfigured them least. I ask you, 
:Sir,if you will receive subscriptions for this Challenge Cup? 
If you will, I shall be glad to send you mine." 

M. A, 

" P.S. — Any one who will cut out this letter, and get it 
pasted up in any binder's or printer's trimming room will 
confer a fevour on the writer." 




The book must now be glued up ; that is, glue applied to* 
the back to hold the sections together, and make the back 
firm during the rounding and backing. Knock the book 
perfectly true at its back and head, and put it into the 
lying press between two pieces of old mill-board; expose 
the back and let it project from the boards a little, the 
object being to hold the book firm and to keep the slips 
close to the sides, so that no glue shall get on them; then 
with glue, not too thick, but hot, glue the back, rubbing it 
in with the brush, and take the overplus off again with the 
brush. In spme shops, a handful of shavings is used to 
rub the glue in, and to take the refuse away, but I consider 
this to be a bad plan, as a great quantity of glue is wasted. 
The Germans rub the glue into the back with the back 
of a hammer, and take away the overplus with the brush; 
this is certainly better than using shavings. The back must 
not be allowed to get too dry, before it is rounded, or it will 
have to be damped with a sponge, to give to the glue the 
elasticity required, but it should not be wet, this being 
worse than letting it get too dry. The book should be left 
for about an hour, or till it no longer feels tacky to the 
touch, but stiU retains its flexibility. A flexible bound book 
should be rounded first, using a backing board to bring the 
sheets round, instead of a hammer, then the back glued, 
and a piece of tape tied round the book to prevent its 
going back flat. 



But all books are not glued up in the press; some work- 
men knock up a number of books, and, allowing them to 
project a little over their press, glue the lot up at once;, 
others again by holding the book in the left hand and 
drawing the brush up and down the back. These last 
methods are, however, only practised in cloth shops, where 
books are bound or cased at very low prices. The proper 
way, as I have explained, is to put the book in the press ; 
and if more than one, they should be laid alternately back 
and foredge, with the back projecting about ^ an inch, and 
allowed to dry spontaneously, and on no account to be dried 
by the heat of a fire. All artificial heat in drying in any 
process qf bookbinding is injurious to the vjm^k. 





The word "rounding'* applies to the back of the hook, and 
is preliminary to backing. In rounding the back, the book 
is to be laid on the press before the workman with the 
foredge towards him ; the book is then to be held with the 
left hand by placing the thumb on the foredge and fingers 
on the top of the book pointing towards the back, so that 
by drawing the fingers towards the thumb, or by pressing 
fingers and thumb together, the back is drawn towards the 
workman at an angle. The back is then struck gently with 
the flat or face of the hammer, beginning in the centre of 
the back, still drawing the back over with the left hand. 
The book is then to be turned over, and the other side 
treated in the same way, and continually changed or turned 
from one side to the other until it has its proper form, 
which should be a part of a circle. When sufficiently 
rounded, it should be examined to see if one side be per- 
fectly level with the other, by holding the book up and 
glancing down its back, and gently tapping the places 
where uneven, until it is perfectly true or uniform. The 
thicker the book the more difficult it will be found to 
round it; and some papers will be found more obstinate 
than others, so that great care must be exercised both in 
rounding and backing, as the foredge when cut will have 
exactly the same form as the back. Nothing can be more 
annoying than to see books lop-sided, pig backed, and with 
sundry other ailments, inherent to cheap bookbinding. 


The Lack wlien properly rounded should be about J of 
a circle, according to tlie present mode, but in olden times 
they were made almost flat. They were not rounded aa 
now done, but the swelling caused by tbe thick tlu'ead 
used made quite enough rounding when put in the press 
for backing. 

Messrs. Hopkinson & Cope, of Farringdon Koad, London, 
manufacture a rounding machine (see woodcut) that will 
round with great uniformity as many as six hundred books 
per hour, without any glue being on the back, thus effecting 
a saving of both material and time. 




The boards required for backing, called backing boards,, 
should always be the same length as the book. They are 
made somewhat thicker than cutting boards and have their 
tops planed at an angle, so that the sheets may fall well 

Hold the book in the left hand, lay a board on one side, 
a little away from the back, taking the edge of the top 
sheet as a guide, the distance to be a trifle more than the 
thickness of the boards intended to be used. The book, 
with the backing board, is then to be turned over, holding 
the boards to the book by the thumb, so that it does not 
shift, then lay the other board at exactly the same distance 
on the other side. The whole is now to be held by the left 
hand tightly and lowered into the press. The boards may 
possibly have shifted a little during the process, and any 
correction may now be made whilst the press holds the 
book before screwing up tight, such as a slight tap with the 
hammer to one end of a board that may not be quite 
straight. Should the boards however be not quite true, it 
will be better to take the whole out and re-adjust them,, 
rather than* lose time in trying to rectify the irregularity 
by any other method. If the rounding is not quite true it 
will be seen at once, and the amateur must not be dis- 


heartened if be 1 s t taVe his book out of the pi-ess two 
or three times to o e t any slight imperfection. 

The book an 1 bo d bem^ lowered flush T,vith the cheeks 
of the press, ew t pa tightly as possible with the 
iron hand-pin. Ihe ba k t the book mnst now be gently 
struck with the back of the hammer, holding it slanting 
and beating the sheets well over towards the backing 
toards. Commence from the centre of the back and do 
not hit too hard, or the dent made by the hammer will 

show after the book has been covered. The back is to be 
finiahed with the face of the hammer, bringing the sheets 
■well over on the boai-da so that a good and solid groove 
may he made. Each side must be treated in tlie same 
way, and have the same amount of weight and beating. 
The back must have a gradual hammering, and the sheets, 
when knocked one way, imist iiot he hiiocked hadu agaiii. 
The hammer should be awung with a circular motion. 


alwajB away from the centre of the back. The book when 
opened after backing, should be entirely -without wrinkles j 
tfieir presence being a sign that tJte workman did not know hi» 
business or that it was carelessly done. Backing and cutting 
constitute the chief work in forwarding, and if these two 
are not done properly the book cannot be sq^uare and solid 
— two great essentials in bookbinding. 

Backing flexible work wiU be found a little more difficult, 
as the slips are tighter; but otherwise the process is exactly 
the same, only care must be taken not to hammer the cord 
too much, and to bring over the sections very gently, in 
order not to break the sewing thread. 

There are several backing machines by different makers 
but they are all of similar plan. The hook being first 
rounded is put betwenl the cheeks, and the roller at the 
top presses the sheets over. I am sorry to say that a great 
number of sheets get cut by this process, especially when 
a careless man has charge of the machine. The woodcut 
is from the catalogue of Messrs. Habeild & Sons. Price 

Note.— A small lying press, with plough, knife, and preea Tpin, may 
be purchased fi«m Messrs. Hahhild & Soss, for £1. Ss. OtI, 
see p.%'e 58. 




There is no occasion to wait for the book to be advanced 
as far as the backing before the workman sees to his boards; 
but he should take advantage of the period of drying to- 
prepare them, to look out the proper thickness of the boards 
and to line them with paper either on one side or on both. 

First, after having chosen the boards, square the edge 
which is to go to the back of the book. 

This must be done in the cutting press, using a cutting 
board for one side termed a " runner," and another called 
a " CUT AGAINST " for the other side. These are simply to 
save the press from being cut, and a piece of old mill-board 
is generally placed on the cut-against, so that the plough 
knife does not cut or use up the cut-against too quickly. 
The boards are now, if for whole-binding, to be lined on 
both sides with paper; if for half-binding only on one 
side. The reason for lining them is to make the boards 
curve inwards towards the book. The various pastings 
would cause the board to curve the contrary way if it 
were not lined. It may be taken as a general rule that 
a thinner board when pasted will always draw a thicker 
one. If the boards are to be lined both sides, paper should 
be cut double the size of the boards ; if only one side, the 
paper cut a little wider than the boards, so that a portion 
of the paper may be turned over on to the other side about 
a quarter of an inch. The paper is now pasted with not too 
thick paste, and the board laid on the paper loith the cut 



e^gc toicards the portion to Le turned over. It is now I 
taken up with the paper adhering, and laid down on the 1 
press with the paper side upwards, and nibbed well down; , 
it is then again turned over and the paper drawn over the 
other side. It is advisable for ainatoura to press their 
boards so that they may be quite sure that the paper 
adberes, remembering always that the paper must be 
pasted all over very evenly, for it cannot be expected to J 
adhere properly if it is not pasted properly, I 

Sometimes when the books are very thick, two boards ' 
must be stuck together, not only to get the proper thick- 
ness, but for strength, for a made board is always stronger 
than a single one. If a board has to be made, a thick and 
a somewhat thinner board should be put together ivithd^ 
paste. Paste both boards and put them in the standing;! 
press for the night. Great pressure should not be put on ¥ 
at first, but after allowing them to set for a few minutes^ f 
pull down the press as tight as possible. "WTien putting I 
made boards to the book, the thinner <nie should always 6» | 
next the 'book. 

"Wben boards are lined on one side only it is usual to 1 
turn kalf an inch of the paper over the square edge, anS 1 
the lined side must be placed next the l>ook. 

There are now so many kinds of boai-ds made that a feW'^ 
■words about them may not be out of place. First, we h 
the black boarfs made of old rope. These vary much in 
quality, but the blacker, harder and smoother they are the 
better. Those of Moeleys, now Euckisgham Mill-boaro 
CojirANV, Boiirne End, Maidenhead, who have always en- ' 
joyed a high reputation for best mill-boards, ate the best. 
They are principally distinguishable by their dark rich , 
tone of colour and leather-like consistency and finishi \ 
Jlessrs. TUBSEY & Co. may be also mentioned amongst ths I 
numerous manufacturers of miU-boards. 



The next in order are the grey or white hoards, used 
mostly for antique work. They are to be pasted on a thin 
black board, and bevelled down to the black one to the 
required width and angle. 

The straw hoards used extensively for cloth work I need 
say little about. They are yellow and are made from 
straw. There is another board made from wood pulp just 
introduced, which may be somewhat better than straw, but 
not having used any I cannot give a positive opinion. All 
boards are sold by weight, no matter what size or thickness. 

With regard to the implements employed for cutting the 
boards up, we have, first, the large shears, in shape some- 
what like an enlarged tin shears. One aim or shank is 



screwed into the lying press, and the other left free i 
used with the right hand, and the board to be cut is held 
■with the left. The price is from 16s. to £1. lOs. The 
amateur should procure one of these. Next, the mill-boaxd 
cutting machine. The woodcut is from Messrs. Harrild's 
catalogue, the price is from £10. to £17. The guages are 
set either on the table or in fi-ont ; the board is put on the 
table and held tight by pressure of the foot on the treadle, 
the knife descending upon the exposed board cuts after the 
principle of the guillotine blade. Another land introduced 
by Messrs. Eicumoxd, of Kirby Street, Hatton Garden, is 

mude for steam work, and is no doubt one of the best that can 
be made. Instead of a knife to descend, a number of circular 
cutters are made to revolve on two spindles, tlie one cutter 
working against the other (see woodcut), but I give Messrs. 
Eichmond's own description, it being more explicit than 


^ny I could possibly give: "The macliine accomplishes a 
surprising amount of superior work in a very short time, 
.and the best description of the ordinary lever mill-board 
cutting machine cannot be compared with it. The machine 
is very strongly and accurately constructed. It is furnished 
^ith an iron table having a planed surface, and is also pro- 
vided with a self-acting feed guage. The gear wheels are 
^engine cut, and the circular cutters, which are of the best 
-cast steel, being turned and ground 'dead true,' clean and 
:accurate cutting is ensured. The machine will therefore be 
found to be a most profitable acquisition to any bookbinding 
^establishment in which large quantities of millboard are 
used up." 

The boards when lined should be laid about to dry, and 
^hen dry, cut to the proper size of the book. The requisite 
^idth is obtained by extending the compasses from the 
back of the book to the edge of the smaller bolt or fold in 
the foredge. After screwing them up the boards are to be 
knocked up even, compassed up, and cut in the lying press, 
using as before, the " cut-against," and placing the runner 
exactly to the compass holes. When cut they are to be 
tested by turning one round and putting them together 
again, if they are the least out of truth it will be apparent 
At once. The head or top of the boards is next to be 
cut by placing a square against the back and marking the 
head or top with a bodkin or point of a knife. The boards 
being quite straight are again put into the press and cut, 
/and when taken out should be again proved by reversing 
them as before, and if not true they must be recut. The 
length is now taken from the head of the book to the tail, 
and in this some judgment must be used. If the book has 
already been cut the boards must be somewhat larger than 
the book, leaving only such an amount of paper to be cut 
off as will make the edge smooth. If, however, the book 



is to be entirely uncut, the size of the book is taken, and 
the portions called squares that project round the book, in 

When a book has not been cut, the amount that is to be 
cut ofif the head will give the head or top square, and the 
book being measured from the head, another square or 
projection must be added to it, and the compass set to one 
of the shortest leaves in the book. Bearing in mind the 
article on trimming, enough of the book only should be 
cut to give the edge solidity for either gilding or marbling. 
A few leaves should always be left not cut with the plough^ 
to shew that the book has not been cut down. These few 
leaves are called proof, and are always a mark of careful 

About twenty years ago it was the mode to square the^ 
foredge of the boards, then lace or draw them in, and to- 
cut the head and tail of the boards and book together, thett 
to turn up and cut the foredge. 





The boards having been squared, they are to be attached 
to the book by lacing the ends of the cord through holes 
made in the board. The boards are to be laid on the book 
•with their backs in the groove and level with the head; 
they must then be marked either with a lead pencil or the 
point of a bodkin exactly in a line with the slips, about 
half an inch down the board. Holes are then made in the 
board with a short bodkin (with a piece of wood beneath) 
on the line made, at a distance from the edge in accordance 
with the size of the book. About half an inch away from 
the back is the right distance for an octavo. The board 
is then to be turned over, and a second hole made about 
half an inch away from the first ones. The boards having 
been holed, the slips must be scraped, pasted slightly, and 
tapered or pointed. Draw them tightly through the hole 
first made and back through the second. Tap them slightly 
when the board is down to prevent them from sUpping and 
getting loose. When the books are drawn-in, cut the ends 
of the slips close to the board with a knife, and well 
hammer them down on the knocking-down iron to make 
Jthe board close on the slips and hold them tight The 
slips should be well and carefully hammered, as any pro* 
Jection will be seen with great distinctness when the book 
is covered. The hammer must be held perfectly even, for 
ihe slips vnll he cut by the edge of it if tised carelessly. 



The book is now to be examined, and any little alteration 
may be made before putting it into the standing presa. 
l*reasiiig boards, the same size as the book, shoiJd be put 
flush with the groove, and in the centre of the press directly 
under the screw, wliich ia to be tightened aa much as- 
possible. With all good books a tin is put between the 
mill-board and book, to flatten the slips and prevent their- ' 
adherence to the book. The tin is put right up to the 
groove, and serves also aa a guide for the pressing board.. 
In pressing books of various sizes, the largest book must . 
always be put at the bottom of the press, witli a block or- , 
a few pressing boards between the varioua sizes, in order 
to get eijual pressure on tlie whole, and to allow the screw 
to come exactly on the centre of the books. 

The backs of the books are now to be pasted, and allowed 
to stand for a few minutes to soften the glue. Tiien with 
a piece of wood or iron, called a cleaniug-off stick, (wood 
ia preferable) the glue ia rubbed off, and the hacks are welL 
rubbed with a handfull of shavings and left to dry. Leave 
them as long as possible in the press, and if the volume ia- 
rather a thick one a coat of paste or tliin glue should be 
applied to the back. I think paste ia preferable. 

In flexible work care must be taken that the cleaningnaff ' 
stick is not forced too hard against tlie bands, or the thread 
being moist will break, or the paper being wet will tear, or 
the tiands might become shifted. The cleaning-off stick may 
be made of any piece of wood; an old octavo cutting board ia. 
as good aa any thing else, but a good workman will alwaya- 
have one suitable and always at hand when required for use. 

When the volume has been pressed enough (I always- 
have my books in the press at least eight hours) they are 
to be taken out, and the tins and boards put away. The 
book is then ready for "cutting." 

Of all presses, excepting the hydraulic, Gregouv's Patexe 


CoMPOinJD Action Screw Press is to my mind tlie best, 
and I believe it to be one of the most powerful presses 
yet invented; sixty tons pressure can be obtained by it, 





Ld^^ "N^llilii 



-=^r^ ^ J ' II' I'l 



Z^ ^ - <~^^^ 


BCRcn r 


The makers are Messrs. Salmon of Manchester. 


press from that firm is "Hatton 

s Nipping 


the bed is 


made moveable from one catch to anotlier, so that different 
degrees of spB.C6 may be obtained, thus doing away with 
blocks for filling up the press. The bed is, howeverj so 
heavy Uiat it generally remains stationary, the workmen 
preferring to lift the wood blocks rather than the heavy 
iron bed. 




In olden times, when our present work tools did not exist 
and material aids were scarce, a sharp knife and straight 
edge formed the only implements used in cutting. Now 
we have the plough and cutting machine, which have super- 
seded the knife and straight edge; and the cutting machine 
is now fast doing away with the plough. There are very 
few shops at the present moment where a cutting machine 
is not in use, in fact, I may say that, without speaking only 
of cloth books, for they must always be cut by machinery 
owing to the price not allowing them to be done otherwise, 
there are very few books, not even excepting extra books, 
that have escaped the cutting machine- 
All cutting "presses" are used in the same way. The 
plough running over the press, its left cheek running be- 
tween two guides fastened on the left cheek of the press. 
By turning the screw of the plough the right cheek is 
advanced towards the left ; the knife fixed on the right of 
the plough is advanced and with the point cuts gradually 
through the boards or paper secured in the press, as already 
described in preparing the boards. There are two kinds of 
ploughs in use — ^in one the knife is bolted, in the other the 
knife slides in a dovetail groove — termed respectively "bolt 
knife " and " slide knife." The amateur will find that the 
latter is preferable, on account of its facility of action, as 
any length of knife can be exposed for cutting. But with 
a bolt knife, as it is fixed to the shoe of the plough, it is 
necessarily a fixture, and must be worn down by cutting 

or squaring mill-boards, or such work before it can be used 
with the truth necessary for paper. 

To cut a hook properly it must be quite straight, the 
knife must be sharp and perfectly true. Having this in 
mind, the book may be cutrbylowenng the front hoard the 
requisite distance from the head that is to be cut off. A 
piece of thin millboard or trindle is put between the hind 
board and book, so that the knife when through the book 
may not cut the board of the book. The book ia now to 


he lowered into the cutting press, with the back towards 
the workman, until the front board is exactly on a level 
with the press. The head of the book is now horizontal 
with the press, and the amount to be cut off exposed above 
it. Both sides should be looked to, as the book ia veiy 
liable to get a twiat in being pi;t in the press. When it is 
quite square the press is to be screwed up tightly and 
evenly. Each end should be screwed up to exactly the 
same tightness, for if one end is loose the paper will bfr- 
jagged or torn instead of being cut cleanly. 

The book is cut by di'awing the plough gently to and fro ; 


each time it is brought towards the workman a slight amount 
of turn is given to the screw of the plough. If too much 
turn is given to the screw, the knife will bite too deeply 
into the paper and mill tear instead of cutting it. If the 
knife has not been properly sharpened, or has a burr upon 
its edge, it will be certain to cause ridges on the paper. 
The top edge being cut, the book is taken out of the press 
and the tail cut. A mark is made on the top of the hind 
or back board just double the size of the square, and the 
board is lowered until the mark is on a level with the cut 
top. The book is again put into the press, with the back 
towards the workman, imtil the board is flush with the 
cheek of the press ; this will expose above the press the 
amount to be taken off from the tail, as before described,. 
and the left hand board will be, if put level with the cut 
top, exactly the same distance above the press as the right 
hand board is below the cut top. The tail is cut in the 
same way as the top edge. 

To cut a book properly requires great care. It will be 
of great importance to acquire a methodical exactness in 
working the different branches, cutting especially. Always 
lay a book down one way and take it up another, and in 
cutting always work with the back of the book tpwards 
you, and cut from you. Give the turn to the screw of the 
plough as it is thrust from you, or you will pull away a part 
of the back instead of cutting it. 

In cutting the foredge, to which we must now come, 
always have the head of the book towards you, so that if 
not cut straight you know exactly where the fault lies. 
The foredge is marked both back and front of the book by 
placing a cutting board under the first two or three leaves 
as a support ; the miUbotuxl is then pressed firmly into the 
groove and a line is drawn or a hole is pierced head and 
tail, using the foredge of the board as a guide. The book 


is now knocked with its tack on tlie press quite flat, and 
trindles (fiat pieces of steel in the shape of an elongated U, 
about IJ inch wide and 3 or 4 inches long, with a slot 
nearly the whole length), are placed between the hoards 
and hook hy letting the hoards fall hack from the book 
and then passing one trindle at the head, the other at tail, 
allowing the top and bottom slip to go in the grooves of 
tlie trindles. The object of this is to force the back up 
■qmie flat, and hy holding the book when the cut-against 
and runner is on it, supported by the other liand under the 
boards, it can be at once seen if the book is straight or not. 
The cut-against must be put quite flush with the holes on 
the left of the book, and the runner the distance under the 
holes that the amount of square is intended to be. The 
book being lowered into the press, the runner is put flush, 
with the cheek of the press and the cut-against just the 
.same distance above the press as the runner is lelow the 
holes. The trindles must be taken out fiom the hook when 
the cutting boards are in their proper place, the mill-hoards 
will then fall down. The book and cutting boards must be 
held very tightly or the book wlU. slip. Now, if tlie book 
has been lowered into the press accurately, every thing 
will he quite square. Tlie press must now be screwed up 
tightly, and the foredge ploughed ; when the book is taken 
out of the press it will resume its original rounding, the 
foredge will have the same curve as the hack, and if cut; 
truly there will be a proper square all round the edges. 
This method is known as " cutting in hoards," 

If the amateur or workman has a set of some good work 
which he wishes to hind uniformly, but which haa already 
been cut to different sizes, and he does not wish to cut the 
large ones down to the smaller size, he must not draw the 
small ones in, as he may possibly not be able to pull his 
.boai'ds down the required depth to cut the book, so he must 



leave tlie boards loose, cut the head and tail, then draw the 
boards in, and turn up and cut the foredge. 

" Cutting out of boards " is by a different method. The 
foredge is cut before glueing up, taking the size frtm. ili£ 
case, if for casing, from the back to the edge of the board 
in the foredge. The hook is then glued up, rounded, and 
put into the press for half an hour, just to set it. The size 
ia again taken from the case, allowing for squares head 
and tail. The book having been marked is cut, and then 
backed. Cloth cases are made for most periodicals, and 
may be procured from their publishers at a trifling cost^ 
which varies according to the size of the book and the 
amount of blocking that is upon them. 

A few words about the varioas cutting machines that are 


62 cnrrffiG. 

in the market. Each maker professes that his machine is 
the best. In some, the knife moves with a diagonal motioi^ 
in others with a horizontal motion. 

From the notes before me of the various makers I take 
two. They are by Salsioxs, of Manchester, The first is 
a 5 foot machine for steam power, price £ 300. ; the second^ 
a hand machine cutting from 20 inches to 42 inches, price 
£34. to £100. Both of these liave a diagonal motion. 
These, lilvc most other machines, are worked with a guage, 
to which the books are set, the top being screwed down 
tightly to hold the booli. On the liandle being turned the 
knife descends with a diagonal action. 

a cunisG MACHisB (hand). 
The first woodcut ia of a new invention of Messrs. 
HopKiNSOS & CorE, made to cut three aides at once, and < 
they claim that this machine will do three times as mucit 
■work in a given time as any other guillotine machine. 



Another of Messrs. Hahsild's machines is here illustrated 
called a registered cutting machine. Its operation is on 
the same principle as a lying press, the difference being, 
that this has a table apon which the work is placed, a 
guage is placed at the back so that the work may be placed 
against it for accuracy, the top beam is then screwed down 
and the paper ploughed, A great amount of work may be 
got through with this machine, and to anyone that cannot 
afford a cutting machine this wiU be found invaluable. 



The edges of eveiy book must be in keeping with the 
binding. A liall' roan book should not have an expensive 
edge, neither a whole bound morocco book a sprinkled edge. 
Still, no rule lias been laid down in this particular, and 
taste should regulate this aa it must in other branchea- 
The taste of the pubhc is so changeable that it is impoa- 
aible to lay down any rule, and I leave my reader to Ida 
own discretion, 

I will now describe the various ways in winch the edges 
may be coloured. -i. 


Most shops have a colour always ready, usually a reddish 
brown, whieh they use for the whole of tliejr sprinkled 
edge books. The colour can be purchased at any oil stop. 
A mixture of burnt umber and red-ochre is generally used. 
The two powders must be weU mixed together in a mortar 
witli paste, a few dro|ia of sweet oil, and water. The colour 
may be tested by sprinkling some on a piece of white paper, 
allowing it to dry, and then burnishing it. If the, colour 
powders or rubs, it is either too thick or haS not enough 
paste in it. If the former, some water must be added ; if 
the latter, more paste ; and it will perhaps be better if the 
whole is passed tlirough a cloth to rid it of any coarse 
paiticles. The books may be sprinkled so as to resemble a 
kind of marble by using two or three different coloura. 



For instance, the book is put in the lying press and a little 
sand is strewn upon the edge in smaU mounds. Then with 
a green colour a moderate sprinkle is given. After allow- 
ing it to dry, more sand is put on in various places, a dark 
sprinkle of brown is put on, and the whole allowed to dry. 
When the sand is shaken off, the edge will be white where 
the first sand was dropped, green where the second, and 
the rest brown. 

A colour of two shades may be made by using sand, then 
a moderately dark brown sprinkled, then more sand, and 
lastly a deeper shade of same colour. . 

There are a few of the ''Old Binders'^ who stiU use what 
is called the "finger brush," a small brush about the size of 
a shaving brush, made of stiff bristles cut squarely. They 
dip it into the colour, and then by drawing the finger across 
it jerk the colour over the edge. Another method is to use 
a larger brush, which being dipped in the colour is beaten 
on a stick or press-pin until the desired amount of sprinkle 
is obtained. But the best plan for the amateur will be to 
use a nail brush and a common wire cinder sifter. Dip the 
brush in the colour and rub it in a circular direction over 
the cinder sifter. This mode has the satisfactory result of 
doing the work quicker, finer, and more imiformly. The 
head, foredge and tail must be of exactly the same shade,, 
and one end must not have more sprinkle on it than the 
other, and a set of books must have their edges precisely 
alike in tone and colour. 


To give an account of how the various colours are made,. 
lihat were formerly used, would be only waste of time, as so 
many dyes and colours that answer all purposes, may be 
purchased ready for instant use. I think I may with safety 
recommend Judson's dyes diluted with water. 




The colours having been well ground are to be mixed 
■with paste and a little oU, or what is perhaps better glaire 
and oil. Then with a sponge or with a bnish colour the 
whole of the edge. In colouring the foredge the hook should 
be drawn back so as to form a slope of the edge, so that 
when the book is opened a certain amount of colour will 
still he seen. It ia often necessary to give the edges two 
coats of colour, and the first must be quite dry before the 
second tint is appHed. 

A yery good effect may be produced by first colouring 
the edge yellow, and when dry, after throwing on riee^ 
seeds, pieces of thread, or anything else according to fancy, 
sprinkle with some other dai'k colour. For this class body 
colour should always be used. This may be varied in many 
different ways. 


The edges of marbled books should in almost every 
instance correspond with their marbled ends. 

In London very few binders marble then' own work, but 
send it out of the house to the MarUm-s, who do nothing 
else but make mai'bled edges and paper. The amateur 
cannot do better than take his books to be marbled; it 
will cost him only a few pence, which will be well spent 
in avoiding the trouble and dirt which marbhng occaBions; 
nevertheless I will endeavour to explain how he may do it 
himself. It is however a process that may seem very easy, 
but is very difficult to execute properly. 

Tlie requisites are a long square wooden or zinc trough 
about 2 inches deep to hold the size for the colours to float 
on; the dimensions to be regulated by the work to be done. 
About ,16 to 20 inches long and 6 to 8 inches wide, 



probably be large enough. Various colours are used, such 
.•as lake, rose, vermilion, king's yellow, yellow ochre, Prus- 
sian blue, indigo, some green, flake white, and lamp blacky 
The brushes for the various colours should be of moderate 
;size, and each pot of colour must have its own brush* 
.Small stone jars are convenient for the colours, and a slab 
of marble and muller to grind them must be provided^ 
The combs may be made with pieces of brass wire about 
.2 inches long, inserted into a piece of wood ; several of 
these will be required with the teeth at different distances, 
according to the width of the pattern required to be pro- 
duced. Several different sized burnishers, flat and round, 
will be required for giving a gloss to the work. 

The first process in marbling is the prepai;ation of the 
size on which the colours ai'e to be floated. This is a solu- 
tion of gum tragacaTdh, or as it is commonly called, gum 
dragon. If the gum is placed over night in the quantity 
of water necessary it will generally be found dissolved by 
4ihe morning. The quantity of gum necessary to give proper 
consistency to the size is simply to be learned by experience, 
and cannot be described ; and the solution must always be 
filtered through muslin or a linen cloth before use. 

The colours must be ground on the marble slab with a 
little water, as fine as possible ; move the colour from time 
to time into the centre of the marble with a palette knife, 
and as the water evaporates add a little more. About 1 oz. 
of colour will sufl&ce to grind at once, and it will take about 
two hours to do it properly. 

Having everything at hand and ready, with the size in 
the trough, and water near; the top of the size is to be 
carefully taken off with a piece of wood the exact width 
of the trough, and the colour being weU mixed with water 
and a few drops of ox gall, a little is taken in the brush, 
iind Q.few very fine spots are thrown on. 




If tlie colour does not spread out, but rather sinka dowii^ 
a few more drops of gall must be carefully added and well 
mixed up. The top of the size must be taken off as before 
described, aud the colour again thrown on. 

If it does not then spread out, the ground or size is of 
too thick consistency, and some clean water must be added,. 
and the whole well mixed. 

If the colour ^ain thrown on spreads out, but looks. 
rather greyish or spotty, then the colour is too thick, and 
A little water must be added, but very carefuUy, lest the 
colour be made too thin. If the colour still assumes a. | 
greyish appearance when thrown on, then the fault lies in 
the grinding, and it must be dried and again ground. 

When the colour, on being thrown on, spreads out in 
very lai^e spots, the ground or size is too thin and a little- 
thicker size should be added. Now, if the consistency 
or the amount of gum water be noticed, by always using' 
the same quantity the amateur cannot fail to be right. 

If the colours appear all right on the trough, and whea 
token off on a slip of paper adhere to it, the size and' 
colours are in perfect working order. 

The top of the size must always be taken off with the 
piece of wood before commencing work, so that it be kept 
clean, and the colours must always be well shaken out of" 
the brush into the pot before sprinkling, so that the spots 
may not be too large. The marbler must always be guided 
l>y the pattern he wishes to produce, and by a little thought 
he wiU get over many difficulties that appeal- of greater- 
magnitude than they really are. 


The size is first to be sprinkled with a dark colour, and 

this is always termed the " ground colour," tben the other 

colours; bearing in mind that the colour that has the most 


.•gall will spread or push the others away, and this colour 
should in spot marbling be put on last. 

With very little variation all the other kinds of maiv 
bling are done; but in every case where there are more 
loodks or sheets of paper to be done of the same pattern 
than the trough will take at once, the same order of colours 
must be kept, and the same proportion of each, or one book 
^ill be of one colour and the second entirely different. 


The colours are to be thrown on as before, but as fine as 
possible. Then if a piece of wood or wire be drawn back- 
wards and forwards across the trough, the colours, through 
the disturbance of the size, will follow the motion of the 
stick. The comb is then to be drawn the whole length of 
the trough in a contrary direction. The wire in the comb 
will draw the colour, and thus will be produced what is 
termed comb or nonpareil marble. 


The ground colour is to be thrown on rather heavily, the 
•others lighter, and the wavy appearance is caused by 
gently drawing the paper in jerks over the marble, thus 
causing the colour to form small ripples. 

A few drops of turpentine put in the colours will give 
them a different effect, viz., — causing the small white spots 
that appear on the " shell marble." 

There are various patterns, each being known by name: 
•old Dutch, nonpareil, antique, curl, Spanish, shelL An 
amateur would do well to go to some respectable shop and 
;ask for a sheet or two of the various kinds mentioned, and 
as each pattern is given to him, write the name on the back, 
.and always keep it as a pattern for future use and reference^ 



Edges are marbled, after making the desired pattern onr 
the trough by holding the book firmly, pressing the edge- 
on the colour and lifting it up sharply. The foredge must 
be made flat by knocking the book on its back, but th& 
amateur had better tie bis book between a pair of backing- 
boards, so that it may not slip, especially with large books. 
Care must be taken with books that have many plates, or- 
if the paper is at all of a spongy nature or unsized. If a 
little cold water be thrown on the edges it wiU cause the- 
colours to act better. In marbling writing paper, a sponge 
■with a little alum water should be used to take off the gloa* 
or shine from the edge, occasioned by the cutting knife, and 
to assist the marbling colour to take better. 

Paper is marbled the same way by holding it at two- 
comers; then gently putting it on the colour and pressing- 
it evenly, but gently all over, so that the colour may take 
on every part. It must be lifted carefully, as the least 
shake by disturbing the size will spoil the regularity of 
the pattern. Paper, should be damped over night and left 
with a weight on the top. When the paper has been 
marbled and is dry, a rag with a little bee's wax or soap- 
should be rubbed over it, so that the burnisher may not 
stick, and give a finer gloss; this applies also to the edges- 
in burnishing. Marble paper manufacturers burnish the- 
paper with a piece of polished flint or glass fixed in a long 
pole working in a socket at the top, the other end resting 
on a table which is slightly hollowed, so that the segment 
of the circle which the flint takes is exactly that of the 
hollow table. The paper is laid on the hollow table, anA 
the burnisher is worked back^^ards and forwards until 
the desired gloss is attained. By the beat and latest 
method, the paper is passed between highly polished 
cylinders. It is more expensive, on account of the cost, 
of the machinery, but insures superior effect. 





!Paper should be always sized after being marbled. The 
size is made by dissolving one pound of best glue in five 
gallons of water with half a pound of best white soap. 
This is put into a copper over night, and on a low fire the 
next morning, keeping it constantly stirred to prevent 
burning. When quite dissolved and hot it is passed 
through a cloth into a trough, and each sheet passed 
through the liquor and hung up to dry; when dry 
burnished as above. 

But it will be far cheaper to buy the paper, rather than 
make it at the cost of more time than will be profitable. 
Messrs. Eadie & Sons charge for demy size at the rate of 
20s. to 95s. per ream, according to the quality and colour; 
but to those to whom money is no object, and who would 
prefer to make their own marbled paper, I hope the fore- 
going explanation will be explicit enough. 

I copied out of the "English Mechanic," March 17th, 
1871, the following method of transferring the pattern 
from marble paper to the edges of books : — 

" Eing the book up tightly in the press, the edge to be 
as flat as possible, cut strips of the best marble paper about 
one inch longer than the edge, make a pad of old paper 
larger than the edge of the book, and about a quarter inch 
thick; then get a piece of blotting paper and a sponge with 
a little water in; now pour on a plate sufficient spirits of 
salts (muriatic acid) to saturate the paper, which must be 
placed marble side downwards on the spirit (not dipped in 
it), when soaked put it on the edge (which has been pre- 
viously damped with a sponge), lay your blot paper on it, 
then your pad, now rap it smartly all over, take off the pad 
and blot, and look if the work is right, if so, take the book 
out and shake the marble paper off ; when dry burnish. 



At a lecture delivered at the Society of Arts, January, 
1878, by Mr. Woolnough, a practical marbler, the whole 
process of marbling was explained. I believe that Mr. 
Woolnough intends to pubKsh an enlarged treatise on 
marbling, and one that will surely command the attention 
of the trade. A copy of the Society's journal can be had, 
describing the process, No. 1,314, vol. xxvi., and will be of 
great service to any reader. 

7t\l (Ktnfttxs. 




-A gilt edge is the most elegant of all modes of ornament- 
ing edges, and this branch of bookbinding has from time 
to time been so greatly extended, that at the present day 
there axe many ways in whicli a book may have the edges 
gilt; but some methods are not pursued, either from igno- 
Ance on the binder's part, or with a view to save expense. 

First we have the '^ plain gilt" then " gilt in the round; " 
then again some colour under the gold, for instance *'gilt 
fOn red," or whatever the colour may be, red being mostly 
used, especially for religious books. Some edges are 
'*' tooled" and some have a gilt edge with landscape or 
43cene appropriate to the book painted on the edge, onty 
to be seen when the book is opened. " Marbling under 
-gilt " may also be used with good effect; but still better 
^* marbling on gilt" 

The room where gilt edge work is done should be 
neither dirty nor drafty, and the necessary materials are: — 

1st. The Gold Cushion. 

This may be purchased ready for use, or if the amateur 
wishes to make one for his own use, it may be done by 
<;overing a piece of wood, about 12 inches by 6, with 
-a piece of white calf, the ro7tgh side outwards, and padded 
with blotting paper and cloth. The pieces underneath 
should be cut a little smaller than the upper one, so tha& 


it will form a bevel at the edge lutiju te flat n tli top, I 
The calf to he neatly nailed all ouud the ed e If the 
pile of the leather ia too rough t an be edu ed tli a 
piece of pumice stone, by rubbm th stone on tl e calf 
with a circular motion. 

2nd. Gold Knife. 
This should be a long knife of thin steel, the blade 
about one to one and a half inch wide. 

Zrd. Buniisluirs. I 

These are made of agate stone, and can he purchased of ] 
any size. A flat one, and two or three round ones, will b& 
found sufficient. They should liave a very high polish. 

Ath. Glaire Water or Size. 

The white of an egg and a tesrcup full of water are well | 
beaten together, until the albumen is perfectly dissolved. 
It must then he allowed to stand for some hours to settle, 
after which it should be strained through a piece of linen 
which has been washed; old linen is, therefore, to be pre- i 
ferred to new. 

Bth. Scrapers. J 

Pieces of steel, with tlie edge or burr made to turn up I 
by rubbing the edge flat over a bodkin or other steel j 
instrument, so that when applied to the edge a thin 1 
shaving of paper is taken off'. The beauty of gilding- I 
depends greatly on proper and even scraping, 1 

Glk TJie Gold Leaf. 
This is bought in books, the price, according to quality;. ' 
most of the cheap gold comes from Germany. I recom- 
mend the use of the best gold that can be had; it being 
in the end the cheapest, as cheap gold turns black by the 
action of the atmosphere in course of time. 




The method of preparing the gold is by making an 
alloy: gold with silver or copper. It is drawn out into 
a wire of about six inches in length, and by being passed 
again between steel rollers is made into a ribbon. This- 
ribbon is then cut into squares and placed between vellum 
leaves, about four or five inches square, and beaten with a 
hammer somewhat like our beating hammer, until the gold 
has expanded to the size of the vellum. The gold is again 
cut up into squares of about one inch, and again inter- 
leaved; but gold-beater skin is now used instead of vel- 
lum; and so by continual beating and cutting up, the 
proper thickness is arrived at. If the gold is held up to 
the light, it will be found to be beaten so thin that it is 
nearly transparent, although when laid on any object it is 
of sufficient thickness to hide the surface underneath. It 
has been estimated that the thickness of the gold leaf is 
only -rroWo of an inch. 

To gild the edges, the book should be put into the press- 
straight and on a level with the cheeks of the press between 
cutting boards, the boards of the book being thrown back. 
The press should be screwed up very tightly, and any pro- 
jection of the cutting boards should be taken away with a 
chisel. If the paper is unsized or at all spongy, the edge 
should be sized and left to dry. This may be ascertained 
by wetting a leaf with the tongue : if spongy, the moisture 
will sink through as in blotting paper. The edge should 
be scraped quite flat and perfectly even, care being taken 
to scrape every part equally, or one part of the edge will 
be hollow or perhaps one side scraped down, and this will 
make one square larger than the other. When scraped quite 
smooth and evenly, a mixture of blacklead and thin glaire 
water is painted over the edge, and with a hard brush it is 
well brushed until dry. 

The gold should now be cut on the gold cushion. Lift 
a leaf out of the book with the gold knife, lay it on the 
gold cushion, breathe gently on the centre of the leaf to 
lay it flat, it can then be cut with perfect ease to any size. 
The edge is now to be glaired evenly, and the gold taken 
Tip with a piece of paper previously greased by drawing it 
■over the head. The gold is then gently laid on the edge, 
which has been previously glaired. The whole edge or end 
being done, it ia allowed to get perfectly dry, which will 
■occupy two hours. 

Before using the burnisher on the gold itself, some gilders 
lay a piece of fine paper on the gold and gently flatten it 
with the burnisher. Books are often treated in this manner, 
they then become "duE gilt." When intended to be bright, 
a waxed cloth should be gently rubbed over the surface two 
or three times before using the burnisher. The beauty of 
burnishing depends upon the edge presenting" a solid and 
unifonn metallic surface, without any marksof the burnisher. 
The manner of burnishing is to hold a flat burnisher, where 
the siu-face is flat, firmly in the right hand with the end of 
the handle on the shouJder, to get better leverage. Work 
the burnisher backwards and forwards with a perfectly even 
pressure on every part. When both ends are finished, the 
foredge ia to be proceeded with, by making it perfectly flat. 
It is better to tie the book, to prevent it slipping back. 
The foredge is to be gilt exactly in the same manner as 
the ends ; it will of course return to its proper round when 
released from the press. This is done with all books in the 
-ordinary way, but if the book is to have an extra edge, it 
is done " solid or in the round." For this way the book 
must be put into the press with its proper round, and with- 
■out flattening it, and scraped in that position with scrapers 
corresponding with the rounding. The greatest care must 
be taken in this kind of scraping that the sides are not I 


scraped away, or the squares will be made either too large^ 
or lop-sided. 


The edges are coloured by fanning them out as explained 
in colouring edges, and when dry, gilt in the usual way ;. 
not quite such a strong size will be wanted, through there- 
being a ground in the colour; nor must any black lead be 
used. The edges must in this process be scraped first, then 
coloured and gilt in the usual way. 


The book is to be gilt as usual, then while in the press 
stamped or worked over with tools that are of some open 
character; those of fine work being preferable. Some 
design should be followed out according to the fancy of the 

The tools must be warmed slightly so that the impression 
may be firm ; the foredge should be done first. Another 
method is to tool the edge before burnishing, or the diflferent 
portions of the tooling may be so managed in burnishing 
that some parts will be left bright and standing in relief" 
on the unbumished or dead surface. 


The edge is to be fanned out and tied between boards, 
and whilst in that position some landscape or other scene, 
either taken from the book itself or appropriate to the 
subject of it, painted on the foredge, and when quite dry it is 
gilt on the flat in the usual maimer. This work of course 
requires an artist well skilled in water-colour drawing. 



After the edges have been gilt by any of the foregoing 
methods, the rounding must be examined and corrected ; 
and the book should be put into the standing press for two 
or three hours, to set it. The whole of the edges should 
^be wrapped up with paper to keep them clean during 
the remainder of the process of binding. This is called 
« cupping «p." 




Tew binders work their own head-bands in these times of 
strikes and struggle for higher wages. It takes some time 
and pains to teach a female hand the perfection of head* 
band working, and but too often, since gratitude is not 
universal, the opportunity of earning a few more pence per 
week is seized without regard to those at whose expense 
the power of earning anything was gained, and the baffled 
employer is wearied by constant changes. Owing to this, 
most bookbinders use the machine-made head-band. These 
can be purchased of any size or colour, at a moderate price. 

Head-banding done by hand is really only a twist of 
different coloured cotton or silk round a piece of vellum or 
•cat-gut fastened to the back every half dozen sections. If 
the head-band is to be square or straight, the vellum should 
be made by sticking with paste two or three pieces together. 
Damp the vellum previously and put it under a weight for 
.a few hours to get soft. Vellum from old ledgers and 
other vellum bound books is mostly used. The vellum 
when quite dry and flat is be cut into strips just a little 
under the width of the squares of the books, so that when 
the book is covered, the amount of leather above the head- 
band and the head-band itself will be just the size or height 
o{ the square. 

If, however, a round head-band is chosen, cat-gut is 
taken on the same principle with regard to size, and this la 




farther advanced by using two pieces of cat -gut, generally j 
the one being smaller tlian the other, and making with the- | 
heading three rows. The round head-band is the original, 
head-baud, and cord was used instead of cat-gut. The cords. J 
were fastened to lay-corda on the sewing press, and placed 
at head and taO, and the head-band was worked at the 
same time that the book was sewn. I am now spealdng of | 
books bound in the 15th century ; and in pulling one of 
these old bindings to pieces, ifc will compensate for the 
time occupied and the trouble taken, if the book be ex- 
amined to see how tbe head-band was worked, and how the- 
head-band then formed the catch-up stitch ; the head-band 
cords were drawn in through the boards, and thus gave^ 
greater strength to the book than the method used at the 
present day. To explain how the head-band is worked is- 
rather a difficult task; yet the process is a very simple one. 
The great difficulty is to get the silks to lie close together^ ] 
which they will not do if the twist or beading is not evenly 
worked. Thia requires time and patience to accomplish. 
The hands must be clean or the silk wiU get soiled; fingers, 
must be smooth or the silk wiU be frayed. 

Suppose, for instance, a book is to be done in two- 
colours, red and white. The head-band is cut to size, the- 
book is, for convenience, held in a press, or a plough with 
the knife taken out, so that tlie eud to be head-baaded is- 
roiaed to a convenient height. The ends of the silk or 
cotton are to be joined together, and one, say the i'ed^_ ' 
threaded through a strong needle. This is then passed 
through the back of the book, at about the centre of the 
second section, commencing on the left of the book. This- 
must be passed tlut>ugh twice, and a loop left The vel- 
lum is put in this loop and the silk drawn tightly, the 
vellum wiU then be held fast. The white is now to be 
twisted TOund the red once, and round the head-band 


rfcwice; the red is now to be taken in hand and twisted 
round the white once, and the head-band twice ; and this 
is to be done until the whole vellum is covered. The 
needle must be passed through the back at about eveiy 
-eight sections to secure the head-band. The beading is 
the effect of one thread being twisted over the other, and 
the hand must be kept exactly at the same tightness or 
.tension, for if pulled too tightly the beading will go under- 
neath, or be irregular. The fastening off is to be done by 
jpassing the needle through the back twice, the white is 
then passed round the red and under the vellum, and the 
*ends are to be tied together. 


This is to be commenced in the same way as with two, 
*but great care must be taken that the silks are worked in 
rotation so as not to mix or entangle them. The silks must 
be kept in the left hand, while the right twists the colour 
over or round, and as each is twisted round the vellum it 
is passed to be twisted round the other two. In fastening 
off, both colours must be passed round under the vellum 
:and fastened as with the two colour pattern. 

The head-bands may be worked intermixed with gold or 
sQver thread, or the one colour may be worked a number 
o{ times round the vellum, before the second colour has 
been twisted, giving it the appearance of ribbons going 
round the head-band. 

With regard to stuck-on head-bands, the amateur may 
make them at little expense, by using striped calico for the 
purpose. A narrow stripe is to be preferred of some bright- 
colour. The material must be cut into lengths of about 
li inch wide, with the stripes across. Cords of different 
thickness are then to be cut somewhat longer than the 




calico, and a piece of the cord is to be fastened by a nail 
at one end on a board of sufficient lengtlL The calico is- 
then to he posted and laid down on the board under the- 
cord, and the cord being held tightly may be easily covered 
■with the striped calico, and rubbed with a folder into a 

When this is dry, the head and tail of the book is glued 
and the proper piece of the head-band is put on. Or tlie 
head-band may be purchased, as hefore stated, worked with 
either silk or cotton ready for fastening on, fram about 
2s. 3d. to 4s. 6d. a piece of twelve yards, according to the 
size rec|_mred. I have no doubt that the amateur will find 
this far better than working liis own head-hands, but it 
has the disadvantage of not looking so even as a head-band 
properly worked on the book. I have lately seen some 
apecimens as good imitations of hand-worked ones as it is- 
possible for machinery to manufacture. 

After the head-band has been put on or worked, the boot 
is to be "lined up" or "got ready for covering." 




Nearly all modem books are bound with hollow backs, 
except where the books are sewn for flexible work or other- 
wise meant to have tight backs. 

The head-band is first set with glue, if worked, by glue- 
ing the head and tail, and with a folder the head-band is 
made to take the same form as the back. This is to be 
done by holding the book in the left hand with its back 
on the press, then a pointed folder held in the right hand 
is run round the beading two or three times to form it ; the 
silk on the back is then rubbed down as much as possible 
to make all level and even, and the book is allowed to dry. 
When dry it is put into the lying press to hold it, and the 
back is well glued all over; some paper, usually brown, is 
now taken, the same length as the book, put on the back, 
and rubbed down well with a thick folder : a good sized 
bone from the ribs of beef is as good as anything. The 
overplus of the paper is now to be cut away from the back, 
except the part projecting head and tail. A second coat of 
glue is now put on the top of the brown paper and another 
piece is put on that, but not quite up to the edge on the 
left hand side. When this is well rubbed down it is folded 
evenly from the edge on the right side over to the left, the 
small amount of glued space left will be found sufficient to 
hold it down; the top is again glued and again folded over 
from left to right, and cut off level by folding it back and 

G 2 



ninniug a sharp knife down the fold. This is what is 
generally termed " two on and two o£F," beiog of course two 
thicknesses of paper on tlie back and two for the hollow ; 
but thin or small books need only have one on the hack 
and two for the hollow. Thick or large books shonld have 
more paper need in proportion to their size. Books that 
have been over-cast in the sewing should have rather a 
strong lining up, so that there be not such a sti-ain when 
the book is opened. When the whole is dry, the overplus 
of the paper, head and tail, is to he cut off close to tha 

I need liardly aay that the better the paper used the 
more easy will he the working of it. Old writing or copy 
book paper wiR be found to be as good as any, but good 
brown paper is, as I have said before, mostly used. 

The hook is now ready for putting the bands on. These 
are prepared beforehand by sticking with glue two or tliree 
pieces of leather together or on a piece of paper, and well 
pressing it ; and then allow it to dry under pressure. The 
paper must then be glued twice, allowing each coat to dry 
before glueing again. It should then be put on one side for 
future use, and when wanted, the proper thickness is chosen 
and cut into strips of a width to correspond with the size 
of the book. The book is now to be marked up, 5 bands 
being the number generally used, leaving the tail a little 
longer than the other portions. The strips of band are then 
to be moistened with a little hot water to cause the glue 
upon the paper to melt. Each piece is then to be fixed 
npon the hack just under the holes made with the com- 
passes in marking up, Tliis wiR be found to be a far 
better plan than to first cut the strips and then to glue 
them. By the latter plan the glue is liable to spread upon 
the side, where it is not wanted, and if the book has to be 
covered with ligiit calf, it will certainly be stained black: 


SO the amateur must be careful that all glue is removed from 
the back and sides before he attempts to cover any of his 
books with calf. It is rather provoking to find some 
favourite colour when dry, having a tortoiseshell appear- 
ance, which no amount of washing will take out. When 
dry the ends of the bands are to be cut off with a h&vel, 
and a little piece of the boards from the comers nearest 
the back also taken off on the bevel, that there may not 
be a sharp point to fret through the leather when the book 
is opened. This is also necessary so that the head-band 
may be properly set. A sharp knife should be inserted 
between the hollow and should separate it from the back 
at head and tail on each side so far as to allow the leather 
to be turned in. Morocco may have the back glued, as it 
will not show through, and will facilitate the adhesion of the 


This class of work is not lined up. The leather is stuck 
directly upon the book; the head-band is set as before 
explained, and held tight by glueing a piece of fine linen 
against it, and when quite dry, the overplus is to be cut 
away, and the back made quite smooth. The bands are 
then knocked up gently with a blunt chisel to make them 
perfectly straight, being first damped and made soft with 
a little paste to facilitate the working and to prevent the 
thread from being cut. Any holes caused by sawing-in, in 
previous binding, must be filled up with a piece of frayed 
cord, pasted. Any holes thus filled up must be made quite 
smooth when dry, as the least unevenness will show when 
the book is covered. 

In " throw up " backs, or in " flexible not to show ", a piece 
of thin linen or stuff called mull (muslin) is glued on the 
back first, and one piece of paper on the top. For the 


hollow, three, four, or even five pieces are stuck one on the 
other, 30 that it may be firm ; whilst the book itself will be 
as if it had a fiexible back. The bands, if any, ate then to 
be fastened on, and the comers of the boards cut off. It 
is then ready for covering, " Mock flexible " has generally 
one piece of paper glued on the back, aud when marked- 
up, the bands are put on as before, and the book covered. 



Books are covered according to the fancy of the binder or 
■customer. The mateiials used at the present day, are — 
leat]ier of aR sorts, parchment or Tellum, bookbinder's 
cloth, velvet, needle- work, and imitation leather, of which 
varioua kinds are manufactured, such aa leatherette and 

Each kind requires a different manner of working or 
manipidation. For instance, a wet calf book must not 
be covered in the same manner as a velvet one : I will 
take each in the above order and explain how they are 

Under the class of leather, we have moroccos of all 
kinds; masia; calf, coloured, smooth and imitation; roan, 
sheep and imitation morocco. 

The MOHOCCO cover, indeed any leather cover, is to be 
cut out by laying the skin out on a flat board, and having 
chosen the part or piece of the skin to be used, the book is 
laid on it and the skin is cut with a sharp knife round the 
book, leaving a space of about J of an inch for an 8vo., and 
more or less according to the size of the book and thick- 
ness of board, for turning in. The moixjcco cover should 
now have marked upon it with a pencil, the exact size of 
the book itself, by laying tlie book on tlie cover, and run- 
ning the point of a black lead pencil all round it. The 
leather mtist then be "pared," or shaved round the edges. 



uaiiig the pencil marks as a guiLle, This paring process. 
18 not so difficult, especially if a French knife is used, such 
as may be purchased at Jlessrs. E.VDIE & Son's, Gt. Queen 
Street. The chief point heing that a very sharp edge is to 
be kept on the knife, and that the Imrr is on tlie cutting' 
edge. The knife is to be held in the right hand, placing 
two fingers on the top with the thumb underneath. The 
leather must be placed on a piece of marble, lithographic 
stone, or thick glass, and held tightly strained between 
finger and thumb of the left hand. Then by a series of 
pushes from the right hand, the knife takes off more or less, 
according to the angle given. The burr causes the knife to- 
enter the leather ; if the burr is turned up the knife will 
either not cut or run off. If the knife is held too much at 
an angle it will go right through the leather ; a rather un- 
pleasant experience and one to be carefully avoided, Tlie 
leather should from time to time be examined, by turning 
it over, to sec if any unevenness appears, for every cut will 
show. Especial attention sliould he given to where the 
edges of the board go. The turning in at the head and 
tail should be pared off as tiiin as possible, as there will 
be twice as much thickness of leather on the back where- 
turned in, and the object of tliis care being, that it muat- 
not be seen. The morocco cover should now be wetted well,, 
and grained up by using either the hand or a flat piece of ■ 
cork. Tliis is to be done by gently curhng it up in all 
directions ; and when the gi'ain has been brought up pro- 
perly and sufficiently, the leather should be pasted on the 
flesh side with thin paste, and hung up t« dry. Should tlie- .. 
leather be " straight grain," it must only be creased in the 
one direction of tlie grain, or if it is required to imitate any 
old book that has no grain, the leather should be wetted aS' 
much as possible, and the whole of the gmin rubbed out 
by using a roUing pin with even pressure. 

The Morocco leather first brought from that country, had 
a pecuhar grain and was dyed with veiy bright colours. 
It is now largely manufactured in London and Paris ; the 
French manufacture is the finest. Kussia and calf req^uire 
no setting up of the grain, hut lussia must he well rolled 
out with the rolling pin. 

When the cover (morocco) is dry, it is to be well pasted,, 
the Bquai'es of the book set, so that each side has its proper 
portion of board projecting. The book is then to be laid 
down evenly on the cover, which must he gently drawn 
on ; the back is then to be drawn tightly by placing the 
book on its foredge and drawing the skin well down on the 
back. The sides next to he drawn tightly, and the bands 
pinched well up with a pair of haTid nippers. The four 
comera of the leather are to be cut off with a sharp knife 
in a slanting direction, a little paste put on the cut edge, 
and the operation of turning in may be commenced. The 
book is to be held on its edge, either head or tail, with a 
small piece of paper put close to the head-band to prevent 
any paste soiling the edge or head-band, and with the 
boards extended, the hollow is pulled a Uttle away from 
the hack and the leather neatly tucked in. The leather is 
next to be tightly hixjught over the boards and well rubbed 
down, both on the edge and inside, with a folding stick, but 
on no account must the outside be rubbed, or the gi'ainwill 
be taken away. The foredge is to be treated in like man- 
ner, by tucking the corners in for strength. The head-band 
is now to be set, by tying a piece of thread round the hook 
between the back and the hoards in the slots cut out from 
the comers of the boards ; this thread must be tied in a 
knot. The book being held in the left hand, resting on its 
end, the leather is drawn with a pointed folding stick, as 
it were, towards the foredge, and flattened on the top of 
the head-band. When this is done properly it should be 


exactly even with the boards, and yet cover the head-band, 
leaving that part of the head-band at right angles with the 
edge exposed. With a little practice the novice may be 
able] to ascertain what amount of leather is to be left out 
from toe turning in, so that the head-band can be neatly 
covered. The perfection in covering a book depends upon. 
the leather being worked sharp round the boards, but with 
the grain almost untouched. 

Paste should be always used for morocco, calf, russia and 
vellum, in fact for all kinds of leather ; but in my humble 
■ opinion, all leather with an artificial grain should be glued ; 
the turning in may be with paste. The glue gives more 
body to tlie leather and thus preserves the grain. JVTiiie 
morocco should be covered with paate made wUhout any 
alum, which causes it to turn yellow. If tlie leather is 
washed with lemon juice instead of vinegar when finish- 
ing, the colour will be much improved. 

EussiA is to be pared in the same way as morocco. It 
-should be damped and roUed with a rolling pin before 

Calf, either coloured or white, need be pared only round 
the head-band. Calf should be covered with paste and the 
book washed when covered with a clean damp sponge. In 
putting two books together, when of calf of two different 
colours, a piece of paper should be placed between, as most 
colours stain each other, especially green. Care should be 
taken to finger calf as little as possible, and whilst wet, 
touching it with iron tools, such as knives and band nip- 
pers, will cause a black stain. Morocco will bear as much 
handling as you like, but the more tenderly calf is treated 
the better. 

Vellum or Parchment. The boards should be covered 
with white paper, to avoid any darkness of the board show- 
ing through. The vellum or parchment should be pored 



"head and tail, and the whole ■weU pasted and allowed to 
stand for a short time, so that it be well soaked and sofL 
The book should then be covered, but the vellum must not 
on any account be stretched much, or it will when dry, 
diaw the boards up to a most remarkable extent. It will 
perhaps be better if the book be pressed, to make the vel- 
lum adhere better. The old binders took great pains in 
covering their white vellum books. The vellum was lined 
■carefully with white paper and dried before covering : this 
in some degree prevented the vellum from shrinking so 
much in drying, and enabled the workman to give the 
boards a thin and even coat of glue, which was allowed 
to dry before putting on the covering. 

EoAN is to be covered with glue and turned in with 
paste. Head and tail only need be pared round the head- 

Cloth ia covered by glueing the cover aU over and turn- 
ing in at once : glueing one cover at a time, and finishing 
the covering of each book before touching the next. 

Velvet should he covered with clean glue not too thick; 
first glue the taci of the book and let that set before the 
sides are put down. 

The sides of the hook should next be glued, and the velvet 
laid down, turned in with glue. The comera should be very 
carefully cut or they will not meet, or cover properly when 
dry. When the whole is dry the pile may be raised, should 
it be finger marked, by holding the book over steam, and 
if necessary by using a bnish carefully. 

Silk and Satin sliould be bned first with a piece of thin 
paper cut to the size of the book. The paper must be glued 
with thin clean glue, rubbed down well and allowed to get 
dry, before covering the book. When dry, cover it as with 


De. Dibdin, -whose knowledge of libraries aud great book 
coUecto]'3 must stamp lum as an authority, aaya that:— 

" The general appearance of one's library is by no means 
& matter of mere foppery or indifference : it is a sort of | 
cardinal point, to which the tasteful collector does well to 
attend. You have a right to consider books, as to their 
ontsides, with the eye of a painter ; because this does not. 

militate against the proper use of the contents Be 

sparing of red morocco or vellnm, they have each so distinct > 
or what painters call spotty, an appearance, that they should , 
be introduced hut circumspectly." 

I cannot agree entirely with the Doctor with regard tt> ! 
being sparing with the red morocco. A library without 
colour is darkj dreary and repulsive. The library should be 
one of the most inviting and cheery rooms in a house, and 
even if one cannot aspire to a room entirely devoted to 
litei-ature and study, let the bookcase, whatever its position 
or however humble, be made as clieerful and inviting e 
possible. What colour will do tins so well as red ? But 
it should be judiciously dispersed with other colours. 

If some standard colour were chosen for each subject one 
might recognize from some little distance the nature of 
the book by its colour. Tor instance, all books relating to^ 
Military matters might be in bright red ; Naval affairs i 
blue; Botany in green; History in dark red; Poetrj- in some 
fancy colour, such as orange, light blue, light green, or olive, 
according to its subject ; Divinity in dark brown ; Archfeo- 
logy in duU red, and Law in white as at present. This- 
would give a pleasing variety, and a light and cheerful 
appearance to a library. 

The firm of Messrs. KoiiNSTAnNN, of 48, Caimon Street, 
has imported an imitation russia leather from America, of 
far greater strength than the real. It is made from buffalo 
skins, and tanned in the same way as the russia hides. This. 



fact, combined with the price, will doubtless cause this new 
material to be received with favour in the English markets 

Half-bound work. The title speaks for itself: the book 
lias its back, a part of the sides and the corners covered 
with leather. The sides are, after the leather is perfectly 
•dry, covered either with cloth or paper according to fancy, 
turned over the boards as with leather. The book is then 
to be pasted down. Before the paper is put on the sides, 
all unevenness of the leather is to be pared away. This 
style has come very much into reputation lately on account 
of its economy; the amount of leather required is less, and 
the work is as strong and serviceable as in a whole-bound 
book. It wiU be better if the back be finished before the 
comers are put on, as there is great likelihood that the 


comers may get damaged to some extent during the pro- 
cess of finishing. The outside paper may either match 
the colour of the leather, or be the same as the edge or 
end papers. This, like many other rules in bookbinding 
is quite a matter of taste. 



This ia to cover up the inside board by pasting down thft I 
end papers to the boards. 

The white or waste leaf, that has till this process pro- 
tected the end papers, must now be taken away or torn 
out. The joint of the board must be cleaned of any paste or 
glue that may have accumulated there during the course of 
either glueing up or covering, by passing thu point of a sharp- 
knife along it, so that when the end is pasted down, the 
joint win be quite straight and perfectly square. Morocco- ' 
books should be filled in with a smooth board or thick 
paper, the exact substance of the leather. This thickness- 
must be carefully chosen, and one edge be cut off straight^ i 
and stuck on the inside of the hoard very slightly, in fact 
only touching it in the centre with a little glue or paste^ i 
just sufficient to hold it temporarily. It must be flush 
with the back-edge of the board. When dry, the paper or 
board is to be marked with a compass about half an inch 
round, and both paper and leather cut through at the sama 
cut with a sharp knife. The overplus board will fall ofT ] 
and the outside of tlie leather may be easily detached by 
lifting it up with a knife. The paper or board, which will \ 
now fit in exactly, should be glued and well rubbed down , 
with a folding stick, or it may be pressed in the standing J 


press if the grain of the morocco is to be polished, but not 

As morocco books only have morocco joints, I may a&- 
well explain at once how they are made. Morocco of the 
same colour is cut into strips the same length as the book,, 
and about 1 J inch in breadth for 8vo. ; a line is drawn 
or marked down each strip about half an inch from its edge,, 
either with a pencil or folder, as a guide. The leather is 
now to be pared from the mark made to a thin edge on the 
half inch side, and the other side pared as thin as the leather 
turned in round the board, so that there will be two distinct 
thicknesses on each piece : the larger half going on the 
board to correspond with the leather round the three sides,, 
and the smaller and thinly pared half going in the joint 
and edge on to the book. The end-papers, only held in with 
a little paste, are to be lifted out from the book, the leather 
well pasted, is to be put on the board, so that the place 
where the division is made in the leather by paring will 
come exactly to the edge of the board; the thin part should 
then be well rubbed down in the joint, and the small thin 
feather edge allowed to go on the book. 

Great care must be taken to rub the whole down weU,, 
that it may adhere properly; the grain need not be heeded^ 
With regard to the overplus at the head and tail, there 
are two ways of disposing of it: first, by cutting both 
leathers slanting through at once, and making the two- 
meet; or, secondly, by cutting the cover away in a slant 
and doing the same to the joint, so that the two slant cuts 
cover each other exactly. This requires very nice paring,. 
or it will be seen in the finishing. The book should \)e 
left till quite dry, which will take some five or six hours. 
The boards are then to be filled in by the same method,. 
as above described, and the end-papers fastened in again 


Cloth Joists. If the clotli Iiaa been stuck in ^hen the 
ends were made, after cleaning all iinevenness from the 
joints, the hoards are tfl be filled in as above, and the cloth 
joint stuck down with thin glue, and ruhhed down well. 
The marble paper may now be put on the board by cutting 
it to a aize, a little larger than the filling in of the boai'd, so 
-that it may he well covered. When cloth joints are put 
^n, the board paper is generally brought up almost close to 
the joint; but with morocco joints, the space left all round 
must be even. 

Calf, Eussia, etc. After having cleaned the joint, the 
leather must be marked all round a trifle larger than the 
size intended for the end papers to cover. Then with a 
knife, the leather is cut tlirough in a slanting direction by 
holding the knife slanting. The boards should be thrown 
back to protect the leather, and the book placed on aboard 
-of proper size, so that both book and board may be moved 
together, when turning round. When tlie leather is cut, a 
piece of paper should be pasted on the board to fill up the 
thiekoess of the leather, and to curve or swing the board 
back; the boards othen\'ise are sure to curve the contrary 
way, especially with calf. "When this lining is dry, the end- 
papers may be pasted down. As there are two methods of 
■doing this, I give the most exact but longest first. The paper 
is to be pasted all over, especially in the joint, and the 
paper being held in the left hand, is to be well rubbed down, 
mote particularly in the joint. The paper is tlien marked 
all round — -the head, fore-edge and tail, with a pair of com- 
passes to the width required for finishing inside the board. 
With a very sliarp knife, the paper is to be cut through to 
the depth of the paper only, by laying the straight edge on 
the marks made by the compasses. This has the advantage 
■of procuring an exact margin round the board, but it must 
be done quickly or the paper will stick to the leather round 



the board fix)ni the paste getting dry, the leather absorbing 
the watery particles in the paste. 

The other way is to lay the paper back, and down on the 
board, and then to mark it. A tin is then to be placed 
between the book and paper, and the paper cut to the marks 
made. The paper is then pasted down as above. When 
pasted down, the book should be left standing on its end, 
with boards left open nntil thoroughly dry, which will be 
about six hours. A tin should be kept especially for cutting 
on, and the knife must be as sharp as possible. This latter 
method is used for all half bindings. 






• / 


Small &ho 





i4 # ,V''Xr ^^H 






' %-^-M 

1 r:);;-i:i 



fe..: -....:...., 


Ro/al fol.n 






Finishing is the axt of embeUialiing the covers of books 
with different designs. Finishing comprises the embellish- 
ment of the covers either with blind work, gold, silver or 
platina leaf, or with metal ornaments fastened through the 
boards, or by only a lettering on the back of the book. 

The art of finishing does not comprise any erabelliahment 
done with the " blocking-press." Therein the art is more 
that of the block or tool cutter, who, working in concert 
with the artist who drew the design, cuts the metal accord- 
ingly. The binder's use of these blocks is mechanical only, 
and cannot be called artistic. 

The first books printed in lai^e numbers were religious. 
The monks who ciiltivated sM the arts, gave great zeal to 
the new occupation of binding, and enriched their Rours 
and their Missals with marvellous miniatures. So charm- 
ingly were they ornamented with blocks reproduced from 
the text, that to our regret, few of these monastic bindings 
are now left to us. 

A great number of these books were executed in Ger- 
many, where this mode of decoration remained a long time 
in use, and we find that other countries borrowed from the 
printer this primitive mode of decoration. As the art 


102 FTKISHraC, 

progressed the printer's marks were reproduced on the 
cover as an ornament, or as a distinction, such as we find , 
at the present day at the end or after the title of books to 
denote by -wliat printer the work was executed. Later on, 
when the Renaissance shone in all its glory and beauty, 
we iind that it freed itself from this limited practice, A , 
new mode of decoration came into use, which we may well 
study, even at the present day ; a style at once rich and 
varied. If we follow the bold interlacing lines which | 
form the skeletons of those infinite and varied designs, we ' 
catch the imaginative caprices of their authors ; and the 
details of tJieir trangformation gives us a guide to the I 
different schools and art of their time. The execution of j 
these linear designs is extremely difficult. It can be easily I 
seen that they have not been done by a block engravec 
one piece, but with small segments. The art of putting I 
together these small pieces, so as to form one complete I 
and artistic pattern, is the skill of the finisher. Many I 
books are now finished by means of the blocking-pn 
but on close examination these imitations of real artistio I 
finisiiing may be readily distinguished. A blocked cover I 
never has the life and spirit that a hand finished one '. 
Of blocking I must speak in subsequent pages. 

These intrinsic designs were very much used by the | 
binders contemporary with Grolier, and the use of lined or I 
azur^ tools are a distinctive mark of the period. This ia ] 
the connecting link with the Italian bindings. It will be 1 
observed that the Italian or Venetian tools are solid (see 
page 31), in the other the tools, although of the same 
shape, are lined or azur^. A little later on other artists, 
not satisfied with this modification, dispensed with the J 
fine cross lines, and retained their outlines only. France, | 
during the reign of Henry II, left Italy far beliind, and I 
executed those grand compositions of Diane bindings. 

They are marvellous subjects, and are sometimes imitated 
at the present day, but are never surpassed in their won- 
4leriul originality. 


After these masterpieces we find the curious bindings <^ 
Henry III, which instfoitly mark a distinct tntnsfonnation. 
The interkcings are less bold and free, but more geometri- 


cally traced. The absence of filling in with small too]! 
gives a coldness, which is increased by a heavy coat ( 
arms on the sides. This form of decoration exercised nf 
great influence, and fram this epoch another school s 
up. Later on in time these interlacings served as a groiu 
plan only for the brilliant fantasies of Ze Gaspn, a mastc 
who no doubt has had the least number of imitatoMt-S 
Although he followed the ancient ideas, and kept the same I 
shapes, the aspect of his bindings was very much changed I 
by the appKcation of pointed tools. Gascon rests for evfflrJ 
BS the most renowned master of the 16th century. 
number of tools necessary for the execution of a compo*! 
aitionlike one of Gascon's is large ; and when one considers, j 
that these tools are repeated, perhaps a thousand times on. I 
each side of the book, a fair idea may be formed of th& | 
magnitude of such a work. I am of opinion that Le Gasfon 1 
brought bookbinding to its highest point of richness and I 
finish. His drawings are always pure and correct; his [ 
squares, lozenges, triangles and ovals are so brought to- 1 
gether as to form a series of compartments interlacing the | 
one within the other, with an incomparable boldness and i 
perfect harmony; above all, one must remark with what I 
richness the compartments are filled. There is no doubt I 
the ground work of the style was Grolier, but he never I 
filled his panels with such richness or with such taste t 
that displayed by Gasfon. Tlie difficulty of adapting such, 1 
designs to the different sizes of books has no doubt deterred. I 
the various masters from imitating such works, so that we I 
see less of Le Gascon's style than of any other ancient I 

From Ze Gasf<m's period the tools became thicker and 1 
tliicker until we have the heavy tools of Derovie, yet sa I 
much in keeping for books of a serious character. They I 
are original in shape, but their employment was only in [ 



borders, leaving the centre of the book free from omament. 
I do not pretend to give a history of the various masters, 
but rather a practical description of the art of bookbinding. 
Much has already been written about the vaiioua works 
executed by these grand old masters ; my endeavour has 
been to show, that whilst the various masters of the art of 
bookbinding worked with tools but little altered from 
their original forms, they so modified and changed them 
in their character and use, as to foim a distinctive mark 
of style for each artist, by which his work may be re- 

A pamphlet, published in Paris, 1878, says : " One of 
tlie branches of artistic industry in which France possesses 
unquestionable superiority is certainly bookbinding; the 
International Exhibitions, and still more the sales of 
private or other collections, has each day given evident 
proof of this. Italy, which initiated herself so perfectly in 
the Renaissance style, and HoUand, once her rival in the 
17th century, have long ceased to produce any work worthy 
of remark; everywhere books are being bound, but the 
' art ' of bookbinding is practised only in France." 

I cannot agree with its authors that one must go to 
France to have a book bound properly. The method of 
bookbinding is quite differently managed and worked there 
than it is here. I have witnessed both methods, and prefer 
the English one. In France a book is taken to a book- 
binder, with the order that it is to be bound in a particular 
style. The book goes through the routine of being pulled, 
refolded, beaten or rolled, sewn and forwarded, then instead 
of being covered in the house, as it would be in England, 
it is sent out with others to the " coverers," who do nothing 
else. On its return it ia sent to the "finishers," with the 
order for style. Now, granted that this has the desired 
effect of doing all that is necessary to a book, it is not 



done under the supervision of the master as in England. I 
The latter plan is surely the best. In England it can be ■] 
altered or faults corrected at any stage. In France this is I 
impossible. Again : Who binds the book ? Is it the J 
binder who undertook the work? or the coverer? or thai 
finisher ? AH three are concerned, and yet separated. I 
Who are the masters who have produced such works as I 
are boasted of by the authors of the pamphlet ? and who 1 
are now producing such glorious examples of the book- I 
binder's art that we are invited to France for evidence of its. I 
native ability. The English and the German workmen have j 
a far greater share of the credit of such work than the I 
French themselves. The French, I admit, do execute finely I 
ornamented work, hut to the English workman muBt be J 
given the palm where strength, solidity and 6Dish 
taken together as a whole. I think judicious readers will I 
agree with me ou this point. With the previous remarks ^ 
kept in mind X will now proceed to the practical iUus- J 
trations of how a book is " finished." 



We were first taught to work the gold leaf on hooka l 
a method not now employed, except, perhaps, hy a novice,^ 
who wishing to get his hooka done before his glaire ] 
dried, bums the gold in. This method was to damp tiiB% 
cover well with water, either with a wet sponge or by other 1 
means. The gold leaf was then laid on, and the tool'j 
worked rather warm on the gold, Thi'ough the heat wi 
steam generated the gold was hiurnt in, and the overplus 1 
washed off with a damp sponge or rag, the gold being left 1 
only in the impressions. If, however, any block or 
was used too large to work by hand, it was impres-sed witi 

rraisHiNG. 107 

heat upon the side, in a small lying press in use at the 
period. This press was known then as an arming press, 
because used coimnonly for impressing armorial bearings 
and monograms on the sides. The term arming press ia 
atill used for the lighter kinds of blocking presses. 

Hand-finishing, as before stated, is really an art. The 
finisher should be able to draw, or at least have some 
knowledge of composition, and also know something about 
the harmony of colours. The workman who knows nothing 
of drawing cannot expect to be a good finisher ; because he 
cannot possibly produce any good designs, or by a com- 
bination of the small tools form a perfect and correct 
pattern. Taste has no small influence in the success of 
the workman in this branch of the art. It is better to 
finish books plainly, rather than put on the least portion 
of gold more than is necessary. If the intentions of the 
books' owner is to put some special style or design into 
hia bookcase, it will be well to think over the various 
styles before deciding upon any particular one. Before 
going thoroughly into the working details a few preliminary 
words may be permitted. 

Let the tools be always in keeping with the book, both 
in size and character. Large ones should be used oidy 
on a lai^e book, and those of less size for smaller works. 
A book on Natural History should have a bird, insect, 
shell or other tool indicative of the contents. A flower 
should be used on works on Botany, and all other works 
be treated in the same emblematical manner; so that the 
nature of the book may be understood by a glance at the 
back. In lettering, see that the letters are of a size pro- 
portionate to the book — legible but not too bold. They 
should neitlier be so lai^e as to prevent the whole of the 
title being read at one view, nor ao small as to present a 
difficulty in ascertaining the subject of a book when on the 


ehelf. Amongst a large number of books there should be 
an agreenble variety of styles, so that the effect may be in 
harmony with the colours around, and produce as pleasing 
a contrast as possible. ^ 


Bolls, fillets, pallets, centre and comer toola of every 
possible class and character; type of various sizes for 
the lettering of books or labels. The type may be either 
of brass or of the usual printer's metal ; if the latter be 
chosen care must he taken that it he not left at the fire too 
long, or it will melt. Type-holders to hold the type, which 
are made to fit the respective sizes, but one or two with a 
spring side, adjusted by screw at the side, will be found 
convenient for any sized type. In England it is the 
custom to letter books with hand letters, each letter being 
separate and fixed in a handle. I have, however, little 
doubt that these will in time be laid aside, and that the 
type and type case will be found in every bookbinder's 
shop in course of time. 

Polishing irons: of these two are necessary — one for 
the sides and one for the backs. There is generally a 
third kept for polishing the board end papers when pasted 
down, but two wiU be sufficient for the use of an amateur. 

A gold-rag, to wipe off the surplus gold from the back 
or aide of a book. It should have a little oil well worked 
into it, so that when it has been wiped over the back or 
side the gold may adhere and remain in it. This rag when 
full of gold will be of a dirty yellow, and may then he 
melted down by any of the gold-refiners and the waste 
gold recovered. 

India-rubber, cut up very small — the smaller the better 
— and steeped in turpentine so as to make it as soft as 


possible, to be used for clearing away any gold not taken 
off by the gold rag. This should also be melted down 
■W'lien full. 

Gold-cushion, for use as explained in chapter XVII. 

Gold Leaf: The best should be used, as it keeps its 
colour better, and is much more easy to work than the 
commoner metal usually sold. 

Sponges, both lai^e and small — the large ones for paste- 
washing, the smaller for glairing and sizeing, 

Glaire may be purchased already prepared, or it may be 
made from the white of egg, which must be very carefully 
beaten up to a froth with an egg whisk. In breaking the 
egg care must be taken not to let any of the yolk get 
amongst the white. A little vinegar should be mixed 
with the white before beating up, and a drop of ammonia, 
or a grain or two of common table salt, or a small piece 
of camphor, will in some measure prevent it from turning 
putrid, as it is liable to do. Some workmen always have 
a stock of " good old glaire," as they term it, by them, 
fancying that it produces better work, but this is a mis- 
taken notion often productive of annoyance and destructive 
to the comfort of the workmen. I advise the amateur to 
beat his glaire from an egg as he may require it. Wlien 
well beaten, allow it to stand for some hours and then 
pour the clear liquid into a bottle for use. I have had 
some dried albumen sent to me for trial. I have not yet 
used it, but have heard that it answers the purpose under 
certain conditions. I have also seen a book finished with 
it, but I think that the tools must be used very hot, as the 
gold appears to have been burnt in. 

Cotton wool, for taking the gold leaf up and pressing it 
firmly on the leather. 

Varnish should be used only on that part where glaire 
has been applied and has afterwards been polished. The 



object being to restore the brilliancy and to preserve thtp 
leather froru the ravages of flies aud other insects which- 
are attracted by the glaire. These pests do great damage to 
the covers of boobs which have been prepared with g 


by their eating it off. They also take away the surface of 
the leather and spoil the good appearance of the books. 
Varnish may be purchased at all prices ; use only the best 
and be very sparing with it. 

A small pair of spring dividers, some lard, sweet oil, and 
lastly but most important the finishing slave. Before 
was introduced the finishing stove in use i 


mflst extinct charcoal fire. A bookbinder's gas stove can 
now be purchased at almost any gis fitter's shop or book- 
binders' material dealers. The price varies according to 
size. This stove, the amateur will find very useful He 
can warm bis glue or make his paate and heat his tools 
for finishing, besides a hundred other convenient uses. 
Where cost is an object, or where gas is not obtainable, 
charcoal may still be used. Any old tin may be utilised. 
Make a number of large holes through the sides ; fill it 
with some live charcoal^ and place a perforated tin plate 
on the top. It will keep alight for hours, and impart 
quite enough heat for any purpose required. This primi- 
tive stove, however, must be placed on a stand or on a 
piece of thick iron, lest it become dangerous. 

Finishing is divided into two classes — Hind or 
antigue, or as it is sometimes called, mtmastic and gold- 

The term antique is mostly known in the trade; and 
when TTwrocco antique or calf antique is mentioned, it 
means that the whole of the finishing is to be done in 
blind tooling. Not only this, but that the boards should 
be very thick and bevelled, and the edges either dull gilt 
or red, or gilt over red. This class of work is used exten- 
sively for religious books. A gold line introduced and 
intermixed with blind work gives a great relief to any 
class of antique work. 

It is not necessary that a special set of tools be kept 
for antique work, although some would look quite out of 
keeping if worked in gold. As a general rule antique 
tools are bold and solid, such as Venetian tools, whilst 
those for gold work are cut finer and are well shaded. The 

112 FINiaHIKG. 

greater number work equally well in gold and in blind, ' 
"but when a special style lias to be followed the varions 
tools and_their adaptation to that style muat be studied. 


The general colour of the blind work is dark brown, and 
the proper way of working these antique tools is to take 
them warm and work them on the damp leather a number 
of times, thus singeing or burning as it were the surface 
only, until it has assumed its proper degree of colour. 
Antique work as a decoration, requires quite as much 
dexterity and care as gold work. Every hne must be 
straight, the tools worked properly on the leather, both in 
colour and depth ; and aa the tools have to be worked many 
times on the same spot, it requires a very steady hand 


i many ^M 
kndand ^H 

N0 9: 

I Imperial 8" 


great care not to double them. Some consider blind work 
03 preparatory to gold work, and that it gives experience 
in the method of handling and working the varions toola ; 
and the degree of heat required for different leathers 
without burning them through. The leather on which 
this work is mostly executed is morocco and calf. 

In finishing the back of a book it must always be held 
tightly ia a small hand presa, termed " finishing press." 
This is a press of the same kind aa a lying press, only 
much smaller, and is screwed up by hand. When in the 
press mark the head and tail as a guide for the pallets by 
numing a folding stick along the edge of a piece of parch- 
ment or pasteboard held by the fingers and thumb of the 
left hand against the sides of the volume across the back 
at the proper place. When two or more books of the 
same character and size are to range together, the backs 
most be compassed up so that the lines bead and tail may 
run continuous when finished. In using the pallet, hold it 
firmly in the right hand and let the working motion pro- 
ceed from the wrist only as if it were a pivot. It will be 
fotmd rather difficult at first to work the pallets straight 
over the back and even to the sides of the bands, but after 
a little practice it will become easy to accompKsh. 

(Morocco). Flexible work, as a rule, has blind lines, a 
broad and a narrow one, worked close to the bands. Damp 
the back with a sponge and clean water, and work it 
evenly into the leather with a hard clean brush. Take 
a pallet of the size suitable to the book, warm it over the 
stove, and work it firmly over the back, Aa the leather 
dries, make the pallet hotter ; this will generally be found 
sufficient to produce the required dark lines. Sometimes 
it will be necessary to damp the different places two or 
three times in order to get the proper coLdut in the blind 



The pallets will have a tendency to stick to the leathery 
and possibly burn it. To obviate this, take IJ oz. of white 
wax and 1 oz. of deer fat or lard, place them in a pipkin I 
over a fire or in a warm place, ao that they may be well " 
mixed together ; when mixed allow to cool. Kubaomeofthia 
mixture upon the rough or fleshy side of a piece of wa^te 
morocco, and when working any tools in blind, rub them 
occasionally over the prepared surface. This mixture will J 
be found of great service in getting the tools to slip or Cf»n0l 
away from the leather in working. Lard alone is some- 
times used, but this mixture will be found of greater servical 
to any fiuisher, and the advantage of adding the wax will I 
be apparent. 

The Unea impressed on the back must now have their 1 
glosa given to them. This is done by giggering the pallets I 
over them. Make the pallet rather hot, rub it over thai 
greased piece of leather, and work it backwards and forwards -f 
in the impression previously made. Great care must bej 
taken that the pallet be kept steadily in the impressiouBl 
already made, or they will be doubled. The back ia nowfl 
ready for lettering. This will be found further on, clasaedj 
under gold work. 

To blind tool the side of a book it must be marked with. 1 
.a folder and straight edge, according to the pattern to be I 
produced ; and as a guide for the rolls and fillets to be uset 
These lines form the ground plan for any design that 1 
to be worked. Damp the whole of the side with a spongo-l 
and brush it as before directed ; then work the fillets alonj 
the lines marked. Run them over the same line two orl 
three times. When dry, make the fillet immovable by I 
driving a wooden wedge between the roll and fork, and I 
gigger it backwards and forwards to produce the gloss. If I 
tools are to be worked, make them slightly warm, and as I 
the leather dries make the tool hotter and hotter. This I 

|i nHisHmo. 115 

must be repeated as often fts is necessary until the desired 
depth of colour and gloss is obtained. In using a roll that 
has a running or continuous pattern, a mark should be 
made upon the side with a file, at the exact point that first 
cornea in contact ivith the leather, so that the same 
flower, scroll or other design may always come in the same 
place in the repeated workings. It ia impossible for a roll 
to be cut so exactly that it may be worked from any point 
in the circumferance without doubling it. Blind work is 
done in the same way whether in using a small tool or a 
large roll. The leather must be damped and repeatedly 
worked until the depth of colour ia obtained. It is then 
allowed to dry, and re-worked to produce the gloss. The 
beauty of blind work consists in making the whole of the 
finishing of one uniform colour, and in avoiding the fault of 
having any portion of the work of lighter tint than the rest, 

GrOLD WOHK is far more complicated than blind or 
antique work, so that it will be better if the amatear 
practice upon some spare pieces of roan, calf and morocco 
before he attempts to finish a book. Gold work is not 
more difiicult than blind tooling, it is only more com- 
plicated. The different kinds of leather require such 
different degrees of heat, that what would fail to make the 
gold adhere upon one leather would bum through the 
other. The various colours require each their different 
degrees of heat ; as a rule light fancy colours require lesa 
heat than dark ones. The amateur has not only to contend 
with these difficulties, but he must also become an adept 
in handling tlie gold leaf and in using the proper medium 
by which the gold is made to adhere to the leather. This 
medium is used in two ways — wet and dry. The wet ia 
• naed for leather, the dry for velvet, satin, silk and paper. 

I The wet medium is again divided into two classes, one 

for non-porous and another for porous leather. Morocc 
is the principal one of the nou-poroua leatbera, with i 

1 all other imitation morocco. 

The porous varieties consist of calf of all kinds, i 
and sheep. 

The non-porous leathers need only be washed with thiflkfl 
paste water or Tinegar and glaired once ; but if the gla 
be thin or weak it wUl be necessary to give them a secoai 
coat of glaiie. 

The porous varieties must be paate-wasbed carefully; 
sized all over very evenly and glaired once or twice ; 
being taken that the size and glaiie be laid on as evenly a 

All this, although apparently so simple, must be well kepti 
in mind, because the great difficulty that amateurs an4 
apprentices have to contend with iSj they do not know t 
proper medium for the various leathers, and one book may! 
he prepared too much, while another may have a deficienoy.B 
Ah a conseciuence one book will be spoilt by the prepara«l 
tion cracking, and the gold will not adhere to the other.J" 
By following the directions here given the amateur wiUl 
find that his gold will adhere without much trouble 
beyond the practice necessary in becoming accustomed t 
an accurate use of the various tools. 

Suppose that a half morocco book is before us to 1 
neatly finished and lettered. Take a broad and narrowj 
pallet of a suitable and praper size. Work it against t 
bands in blind as a guide for finishing in gold. As 1 
impression need be but very slight, warm the pallet on t 
gas stove but very little. Choose some suitable tool as i 
centre piece to go between the bands. Work this alsofl 
lightly on the back exactly in the centre of each paneLI 
This must be worked as truly as possible and perfectly! 
straight, A line made previously with a folding stickff 


along the centre of the back will greatly Eissiat in the 
working of a tool in its proper position. Kow wash the 
back with vinegar and brush it well with a hard brush to 
disperse the moisture and drive it ec[ually into the leather; 
some use paste-water for this purpose instead of vinegar. 
Paste-water has a tendency to turn grey in the course of 
time, this is avoided in using vinegar ; vinegar also imparts 
freshness to the morocco, and keeps it moist a longer time, 
which is very desirable in finishing. This renders it pre- 
ferable to the use of paste-water. 

The impressions made by the broad and narrow pallet 
and the centre tool are now to be pencilled in with glaire ; 
when dry, pencil in another coat; allow this ^ain to dry, 
then rub them very slightly with a piece of oiled cotton wool. 
Take a leaf of gold from the book and spread it out evenly 
on the gold cushion ; cut it aa nearly to the various shapes 
and sizes of the tools as possible. Now take one of the 
pieces of gold upon a large pad of cotton wool, greased 
slightly by drawing it over the head. (There is always a 
sufficient amount of natural grease in the hair to cause the 
gold to adhere to cotton drawn over it). Lay the gold 
gently but firmly on the impressed leather. See that the 
whole of the impression be covered and that the gold be 
not broken. Should it be necessary to put on another 
piece of gold leaf, gently breathing on the first will make 
the second adhere. When all the impressiona are covered 
with gold leaf take one of the tools heated to such a degree 
that when a drop of water is apphed it does noi hiss but 
dries instantly ; work it exactly in the blind impressions. 
Eepeat this to the whole of the impressions, and wipe the 
overplus of gold off with the gold rag. The impressions 
are now supposed to be worked properly in gold; but if 
there are any parts where the gold does not adhere, they 
must be re-glaired and worked in again. A saucer should 

118 nSISHING. 

be placed near at hand with a piece of rag or a sponge and i 
water in it, to cool any tool and reduce it to its proper 
heat hefore using. K the tool be used too hot, the gold 
impression will be didl — if too cold, the gold will not 
adhere. To use all tools of the exact degree of heat 
required is one of the experiences of the skilled workman. 
The back is now ready for the title. Set up the proper 
words in a type-case of a type sufficiently large and suit- J 
able to the book. The chief word of the title should be in"! 
somewhat larger size than the rest, the others diminishing,! 
so that a pleasant arrangement of form be attained. la I 
order to adjust the length of the words, it may be necea— I 
sary to space some of them — that ia to put between each f 
letter a small piece of metal called a space. Square th»1 
type or make the face of the letters perfectly level by I 
pressing the face of them against a flat surface before"! 
tightening the screw. They must be exactly level one f 
with another, or in the working some of them will be | 
invisible. Screw the type-caae up, warm it over the finish- 1 
ing stove, and work the letters carefuUy in bUud a 
guide. Damp the whole of the lettering space with ] 
vinegar. When dry, pencil the impressions in twice with I 
glaire. Lay the gold on and work them in gold. 

But with lead type aikd a spring type-case (a method mora- 1 
suitable for amateurs on account of its relative cheapnea 
and the convenience of the case fitting itself to the different- "J 
sizes of the type, of which the amateur will want a selection 1 
of various sizes), the type-case must be warmed before the- I 
type is put in. The heat of the case will impart sufficient 
heat for the type to be worked properly. If the case and 
type be put on the stove, the type wiU probably be melted 
if not watched very narrowly. Hand letters are letters-'! 
fixed in handles and each used as a single tool The ] 
letters are to be arranged in alphabetical order round the 


finishing stove, and as each letter ia wanted it ia taken 
from the order, worked, and replaced. They are still very 
much used in England, but where two or more books are 
to have the aame lettering, brass type is veiy much better. 
It does its work more uniformly than hand letters however 
skilfully used. 

When this simple finishing can be executed properly 
and with ease, a more difficult task of finishing may be 
attempted, such as a full gilt back. This ia done in two 
ways, a " run-up " back and a " mitred " back. As a 
general rule morocco is always mitred. Place the book on 
its side, lift up the mill-board and make a mark head and 
tail on the back, a little away from the hinge of the back. 
Then with a folder and straight edge mark the whole length 
of the back : this is to be done on both sides. Make another 
line the whole length down the exact centre of the back. 
With a pair of dividers take the measurement of the spaces 
between the bands and mark the size head and tail for the 
panels from the top and bottom band; with a folder and strip 
of parchment make a line across the back, head and tail, at 
the mark made by the dividers. Work a thin broad and 
narrow pallet alongside the bands in blind. Prepare the 
whole of the back with vinegar and glaire, as above de- 
scribed, but lay the glaire on with a sponge. When dry, 
lay the gold on, covering the whole of the back with it, and 
mending any breaks. For mitreiug, take a two line pallet 
that has the ends cut at an angle of 45°, so that the join 
at that angle may be perfect. Work this on the side at the 
mark made up the back, and up to the line made in blind 
across the back. Eepeat this to each panel. The two 
line pallet must be worked across the back and up to the 
lines made in gold, the cutting of the pallet at the angle 
will allow of the union or mitre, so that each panel is 
independent of the other. There will be a space left head 

and taQ which may be filled up with any fancy pallet or 
repetition of tools. The comers should be in keeping with 
the centre and lai^e enough to fit the panel. Work these 
from the sides of the square made, or from the centre of 
the panel, as will be found most convenient according to 
the thickness of the book and style of finishing, and then 
fill in any small stops. When the whole is done, rub the 
gold off with the gold rag, and use the india-rubber if 
I necessary. The title baa now to be put on, which is done 1 

in the same manner as before described. 

It is not always necessary that the finishing be done in ] 
blind first. I have explained it, and advocate its being so J 
worked first as easier for an amateiu". One who is accuB- J 
tomed to finishing finds that a few lines marked previously I 
with a folding stick is all that is required. When world 
the title, a thread of silk drawn tightly across the gold I 
produces a line sufficient, and is the only guide tiiat t 
experienced workman requires. 

To finish a side, make a mark with the folder and straight \ 
edge as a guide for any rolls or iiUets. Prepare the leathfflt I 
as before described where the ornamentation is to come ; J 
^^^ but if the pattern is elaborate it must be worked first ill' 1 
^^^B blind. As a greater facility, take a piece of paper of good J 
^^^1 quality and well sized. Draw the pattern wished to be T 
^^H produced on the paper, and if any tools are to be used, hold 
^^H them over the fiame of gas ; this will smoke them so that 
^^B they may be worked on the paper in black. When the 
^^^ pattern is complete in every detail, tip the four comers of 1 
r the paper with a little paste, then work the pattern through [ 

L the paper on to the leather, using the various sized gougeB ] 

^^^B as the scrolls require, and a single line fillet where there 
^^^H are lines. Work thus the complete pattern in blind. This 
^^^F being done completely, take the paper off from the four > 
■ comera, place it on the other side, and work it in the same 

way. Prepare the leather with vinegar, and pencil out 
with glaire the whole of the pattern. If the whole side be 
glaired with a sponge it wUl leave a glossy appearance that 
is very undesirable. The whole of the side is now to be laid 
on with gold,, and the pattern worked again with the warm 
tools, in the previous or blind impressions. 


The inside of a book ia generally finished before the out- 
side. This should be done as neatly as possible, carefully 
mitreing the comers when any lines are used. Most fre- 
quently a roU is used, thus saving a great deal of time. A 
style was introduced in France called "double," the inside 
of the board being covered with a coloured morocco different 
to the outside, instead of having board papers. This inside 
leather was very elaborately finished ; generally with a 
"dentelle" border, while the outside had only a line or two in 

122 FcnsmsG. 

blind. It ia a style which, although very good in 

quite died out with us, so many prefer to see the finisMng 

rather than to have it covered up when the book is shut. 

The edges of the boards and the headbands must be 
finished either in gold or bUnd, according to fancy, and in 
beeping with the rest of the embelliahment, A fine line 
worked on the centre of the edge of the board by means of 
a fillet looks better, aud of course requires more pains than 
simply running a roller over it. If it is to be in gold 
simply glairing the edge ia sufficient. Lay on the gold and 
work the fillet carefully. Place the book on its ends in the 
finishing press to keep it steady, or it will shake and throw 
the fillet off. If a roll is used take the gold up on the roll, | 
grease it first a little, by rubbing the gold rag over the e 
to make the gold adhere. Then run the roll along 1 
edge of the boards : the roll generally used for this pu: 
is called a har roll — that is, having a series of lines run^fl 
ning at right angles with the edge of the roll. 

Imitation morocco ia generally used for pubhshera' bind- ' 
ings, where books are in a large number and small in 
price ; and the finishing ia all done with the blocking press. 
To finish this leather by hand, it is advisable to wash it | 
with paste-water and glaire twice. 

Eoan is generally used for circulating hbrary work, andl 
is very seldom finished with more than a few hues across I 
the back and the title. This leather is prepared witlil 
paate-wash and glaire, and, when complete, vamiahed ovecj 
the whole surface, 


Inlaid, or mosaic work, is used only in the highra 
branches of book-binding. Formerly books were not inJ 
laid, but painted with various colours. Grolier used i 


great deal of black, white and green. Mr. Tuckett, the late 
binder to the British Museum, took out a patent for ex- 
tracting one colour from leather and substituting another 
by chemical action. This method, however, was in use 
and known long before he turned his attention to the sub- 
ject, although he improved greatly upon the old practice. 
As the patent has long expired, it may not be out of place 
to give an extract from the specification : " Take dark 
chocolate colour, and after the design has been traced 
thereon, it is then to be picked out or pencilled in with 
suitable chemicals, say diluted nitric acid ; this will change 
the chocolate, leaving the design a bright red on a chocolate 
ground." But to lay on the various colours with leather is, 
no doubt, by far the better plan. Paint has a tendency in 
time to crack, and, if acids are used, they will to a certain 
extent rot or destroy the leather ; but if leather is used it 
will always retain both colour and texture. To choose the 
proper colours that will harmonize with the ground, give 
tone, and produce the proper effect, req^uires a certain 
amount of study. Morocco is the leather generally used, 
but in Vienna calf has been used with very good results. 
If the pattern to be inlaid be very small, steel punches of 
the exact shape of the tools are used to punch or cut out the 
patterns required. To do this, work the pattern in blind 
on the side of the book ; take morocco of a different colour 
to the ground it is required to decorate, and pare it down 
as thin as possible. Lay it on a slab of lead. Lead i» 
better than anything else on accoimt of its softness, the 
marks made by the punch can always be beaten out again, 
and when quite used up it may be re-melted and run out 
anew. Now take the steel punch of an exact facsimile of 
the tool iised that is to be inlaid, and punch out from the 
leather the required number. These are to be pasted and 
laid very carefully on the exact spot made by the blind- 


tooling ; press each down well into the leather either with 
a folding stick or the fingers, so that it adheres properly. 
When dry, the book should be pressed between polishedi 
plates, so that the raised pieces, or the pieces that have 
been laid on, may he pressed well into the ground leather. 
When it has been pressed the whole of the leather miiat be 
prepared as for morocco, and finished in gold. The toola 
in the working will hide all the edges of the various inlaid 
pieces, provided tliey are laid on exactly. 

If interlacing bands are to be of various colours, the 
bands must be cut out. Pare the leather thin, and after 
working the pattern through the paper on to the leather 
on the side of the book, lay it on the thinly pared leather; 
with a very sharp and pointed knife cut through the paper 
and leather together on a soft board. Or, the design may 
be worked or drawn on a thin board, and the various banda 
cut out of the boEird as patterns. Lay these on the thin 
leather and cut round them. Keep the board templates 
for any future iise of the same patterns. The various piecea 
are to be well pasted, carefully adjusted in their places 
and well rubbed down. The leather is then to be preparodlj 
and worked off in gold. 

Another method is to work the pattern in blind on thei 
sides, pare the morocco thin, and while damp place it upcmj 
the portion of the pattern to be inlaid, and press it wdl'i 
with the fingers, so that the design is impressed into it- 
Lay the leather carefully on some soft board, and cut roun4i 
the lines made visible by the pressure with a very sharp 
knife. When cut out, paste and lay them on the book and 
prepare as before, and finish in gold. I do not recommend 
this last method as being of much value ; 1 give it oidy 
because it is sometimes chosen ; but for any good work, 
where accuracy is required, any of the plana mentioned 
previously are to be preferred. 





The Viennese work their calf in quite a different manner, 
in feet, in the same way that the eabinet-makers inlay their 
woodwork. With a very sharp and thin knife they cut 
right through two leathers laid the one on the other. The 
bottom one is then lifted out and replaced by the top one. 
By this method the one fits exactly into the other, so that, 
if properly done, the junctious are so neatly made that no 
finishing is retiiiired to cover the line where the two colours 

The frontispiece to this treatise is a copy of a book bound 
by my father for one of the Exhibitions. The ground is of 
red morocco, inlaid with green, brown and black morocco. 
The pattern may be called " Eenaissance." The iugide of 
the boards are " Grolier," inlaid as elaborately as the outside. 

!Yen months labour were expended on this single volume. 

Porous. Calf, as before described, req^oirea more and 
different preparation than morocco, on accoimt of its soft 
and absorbing nature. As a foundation or ground work, 
paste of different degrees of strength ia used, according to 
the various work required. 

Calf books have generally n morocco lettering piece of a 
different colour to the calf on the back for the title. This 
is, however, optional, and may or may not be used, accord- 
ing to taste. Leather lettering pieces have a great tendency 
to peel off, especially if the book be exposed to a hot 
atmosphere, or if the paste has been badly made, so that 
it is perhaps better if the calf itself be lettered. There ia 
no doubt that a better effect is produced in a bookcase 
when a good assortment of coloured lettering pieces are 

126 mnsHmo. 

placed on the variously coloured backs, and tlie titles 
1)6 more easily read than if they were upon light or 
sprinkled calf ; hut where wear and tear have to be studied, 
as in public hbrariea, a volume should not have any letter- 
ing pieces. All such books should be lettered on ^ea_ 
natural ground. 

For lettering pieces, take morocco of any colour, accord-^ 
ing t« fancy, and having wetted it to facihtate the wort, 
pare it down as thin and as evenly as possible. Cut it to 
size of the panel or space it is intended to fit. When cut 
truly, pare the edges all round, paste it well, put it on thoj 
place and rub well down. Should the book rec[uire tw« 
pieces — or one for the title, and one for the vol 
or contents — it is better to vary the colours. I r 
caution the amateur not to allow the leather to come ov( 
on to the joint, as by the frequent opening or moving 
the hoards the edge of the leather will become loose, 
very good plan as a substitute for lettering pieces is to; 
colour the calf either dark brown or black, thus saving thft: 
leather at the expense of a little more time. When th( 
lettering pieces are dry, mark the back, head and tail fc 
the pallets or other tools with a folding stick. Apply 
with a brush paste all over the back. With a thick folding 
stick, or with the handle of an old tooth brush, which is 
better, rub the paste into the back. Before it has time to 
dry, take the overplus off with rather a hard sponge, dippetlj 
in thin paste-water. The amateur will perhaps wonder whj 
paste of full strength must be used for the back, and onl; 
paste-water for the sides. The reason is, that through thf 
stretching of the leather over the back in covering, tl 
pores are more open, and consequently require more fii 
lip to make a firm ground. Much depends upon 
ground-work being properly applied ; and a general cauti( 
with regard to the working in general may not be hera^ 



amiss, Finiahing, above all other departments, demands 
perfect cleanliness. A book may have the most graceful 
designs, the toola be worked perfectly and clearly, but be 
spoiled by having a dirty appearance. See that everything 
is clean^paste -water, size, glaire, sponges and brushes. 
Do not lay any gold on until the prepamtion be perfectly 
4iry, or the gold will adhere and cause a dirty yellow stain 
where wiped off. 

Should the calf book be intended to have only a pallet 
alongside the bands, it is only necessaiy where the paste- 
wash is quite dry to glaire that portion which is to be 
gilt : this is usually done with a camel's hair brush, by 
laying on two coata. When dry cut the gold into strips 
and take one up on the pallet and work it on the calf. 
This is what is termed half calf neat. The band on each 
side is gilt, leaving the rest of the leather in its natural 
state. Some binders polish their backs instead of leaving 
them dead or dull. Tliis, however, is entirely according to 
taste, whether so large a space be left polished only, 


RuTir^p. Make a mark up the back on both sides a 
little away from the joint with a folder and straight edge. 
Put on lettering piece. Wlien dry, paste and paste-wash the 
back. When again dry, take some of Young's patent size, 
melt it in a pipkin with a bttle water and apply it with a 
sponge. Lay this on very evenly with a very soft sponge, 
and be particular that it is perfectly clean, so that no 
stains be left. When this size is done with, put it on 
one aide for future use. This size should not be taken of 
its full strength, and when warmed again some more water 
should be added to make up for evaporation. When the 
coat of size has dried, apply two coats of glaire. The fiiBt 

must be dry before the second is applied, and great c 
must be taken that the sponge does not go over the e 

lace twice, or the previous preparatioaa will be t 
It is now ready for finishing. Cut the gold to proper s 
rub a little lard over the whole of the back with a li 
cotton wool. This requires great attention. Very 1 
must be put on light or green calf, aa these colours i 
stained very readOy. Take the gold up on a cotton ] 
lay it carefully down on the hack; breathe on the g 
and press down again. If there be any places where thi 
gold is broken, they must be mended. Now take a t 
line fillet; heat it so that it hisses when placed in 1 
cooling pan or the saucer with the wet rag in it, and m 
the whole length of the back on the line made be. 
paste-washing. Do this on both aides, and rub the j 
off with the gold rag up to the line on the outside. T 
a two-hne pallet, work it on each aide of the hondi 
Work the morocco lettering piece last, aa it requires 3 
heat. The centre piece of each panel must now 
worked. Work the tools fiimly but quickly. The comeia 
come next; work them from the centre or sides, 
the right hand comers as a guide, and judging the diatanc* 
by the left hand ones. The press must be turned whenfl 
it is required to bring the left aide to the right hand i 
working the comers. The requisite pallets may now 1 
worked to finish the book head and tail. As a rule thet 
are worked when the two-line pallet is worked in < 

Calf-work requires very quick working. The tools mm 
not be held over the various places too long or the hei 
win destroy the adherent properties of the albumen, 
morocco this does not signify so much, as the heat ia i 
80 great. 

Milred hack must be prepared the same way as for "n 












il'md marked, oat in hliiid for finigk- 


JPana frUfred in ijoU, mih Hlk and 
; mall comers 


,Tanel mili-sd ami cornered '; ' . ' " 




Pond mtirdyfinitlud 

^- ^ 






fima« tailparifl ic;ih date 



up back," and the mitreing is to be done as explained i 
workir^ morocco. As before stated this is superior v 
and requires more skill, takes longer but looks much bette 
— each panel must be an exact facsimile of the rest, 
the tools do not occupy precisely similar places 
panel, the result will be very unsatisfactory and 
dence of a want of skill. When the backs are finished, i 
the gold off with the gold rag and clear off any residni 
with the india-rubber. Be very careful that every partid 
of the surplus gold be cleared off, or the delicate lines ( 
the ornaments will be obscure and rE^ged in appearance. ] 

The book is now ready for lettering. Set the typa i 
in the case, and work it carefully in a perfectly straight 
line over the back. The whole of the back is now to 1 
polished with the polishing iron, which must be ] 
clean and bright before it is used. I^repare a board f 
an old calf binding, by rubbing some fine emery or ehi 
coal and lard over the leather aide of it. By tubbing i 
iron over this prepared surface it will acquire a 1 
polish. It must be used over the back by holding i 
lightly and giving it an oblong circular motion. Go ovi 
every portion of the back with very even pressure, so 
no part may be made more glossy than another. 1 
polishing iron should be used rather wanner than 
tools. If the iron be too hot the glaire will turn white 
if too cold the pohab will be dull The grease upon ■ 
leather will be quite sufficient to make the polisher gli 
easily over the surface, but the operation must be rapid] 
and evenly doae. All light and green calf require lei 
heat than any other kinds. These will turn black if 1 
iron be in the least degree too hot. 

It is in finishing the sides that the workman can sheri 
his good taste and skill. The sides should be always i 


keeping with the back ; or more strictly speaking, the back 
should be in keeping with the sides. Before the sides can 
be finished the inside of the boards must occupy our atten- 
tion. With a "run up" back, the edge of the leather 
round the end papers is to be worked either in blind or 
or have a roll run round it in gold. In any case it should 
be paste- washed. If for blind, the roU is to be heated 
and worked round it. If for gold it must be glaired twice. 
The gold cut into strips is to be taken up on the roll and 
worked, and the overplus taken 'off with the gold rag as 
before directed. Extra work, such as mitred work, should 
have some lines or other neat design put on it. Paste- 
wash the leather and when dry glaire twice. When again 
dry lay on the gold all round, and work the single or other 
fillets, or such other tool that may be in keeping with' the 
exterior work. When the gold has been wiped ofif, the 
leather should be polished with the polishing iron. 

The outside must now be finished. Are the sides to 
be polished or left plain ? If they are not to be polished, 
paste-wash the whole of the side up to the edge of the 
back carefully, then glaire only that portion which is to 
be gilt. In general a two-line fiUet only is used round 
the edge, so that the width of the fillet or roll must deter- 
mine the width to be glaired. When glaired twice and 
dry, take up the gold on the fiUet or roU and work it 
evenly and straightly round the edge. The comers where 
the lines meet are next to be stopped by working a small 
rosette or small star on them. Clean ofif any gold that 
may be on the side, and work a small dotted or pin-head 
roU at the edge of the glaire. This will cover and conceal 
the edge. 

K 2 



Extra calf books generally have the sides polished. I 
Paate-waah the sides all over, and when dry size them. 1 
Hold the book, if small, in the left hand, if large, lay 
it on the press and work the sponge over the side in a ! 
circular direction, so that the size may be laid on as evenly 
as possible. Be very careful that it does not froth ; should i 
it do so, squeeze the sponge out as dry a.s possible, and fill ] 
it anew with fresh size. Some workmen work the sponge I 
up and down the book, but if this be not done very evenly 1 
it produces streaks. The amateur will find he can lay a J 
more even coating on by using the sponge in a circular I 
direction. Allow this to dry by leaving the book with [ 
boards extended. When perfectly dry glaire once. Thia I 
will be found sufficient, as the size gives liody to the glaire. j 
When sizing and glairing, be assured that the book be 
laid down with the boards extended ou a level surface- 
if the book be not level the size or glaire will run down 1 
to the lowest portion of the surface and become unequally 
distributed. The gold is now to be laid on the respective i 
places, either broad or narrow, according to the nature o£ ] 
the finishing or width of the rolls. As a general rule, the f 
sides of the better class of calf hooka have nothing mora 
than a three-line round the edge and mitred in the corners. I 
This is, however, quite a matter of tasie. Some have a ! 
liorder of fancy rolls, but never any elaljorate pattern aa 
in morocco work. To finish the sides, place the book in 
the finishing press with the boards extended, so that they i 
may rest on the press. This will afford greater facility 
for working the fillets, rolls and tools necessary to complete ] 
the design on each side. The finishing press being a small I 
one, it can be easily turned round as each edge of tho J 
border is finished. 

To polish the sides, place the book on its side on Bome I 
soft surface, such as a board covered with baize, and kept 1 


for the purpose. Use the large and heavy polishing iron, 
hot and clean. Eub or work the iron quickly and fimily 
over the sides, first from the groove towards the foredge, 
and then in a contrary direction from the tail to the head hy 
turning the volume. The oil or grease appHed to the cover 
previous to lajdng on the gold will be sufficient to allow 
the polisher to glide easily over the surface. Polishing 
has the effect of smoothing down the burr formed on the 
leather by the gilding tools, and bringing the impressions 
up to the surface. The iron must be held very evenly, so 
that the centre of the iron may be the working portion. 
If held sideways the edge of the iron will indent the 
leather. The heat must be sufficient to give a polish. It 
must he borne in mind that, if the iron is too hot, it will 
cause the glaire to turn white. The temperature must be 
well tested before it be applied to the cover. A practised 
finisher can generally tell the proper heat on holding the 
iron at some Kttle distance from his face, by the heat 
radiated from the iron. Calf hooka should be pressed, 
whether polished or not. 

Fressinff. Plates of japanned tin or polished horn are 
proper for this purpose. Put pressing tins between the 
book and the miU-boaida : the tins must be up to the joint. 
Now place one of the japanned tins on the side level with 
the groove, turn the book and japanned tin over carefully 
together, so that neither shifts; place another of the 
japanned tins on the top of the book, thus placing the 
book between two tins. Put the book into the standing 
press and screw down tightly. Leave in for some hours. 
When pressed sufficiently, take the book out, and if the 
sides be polished, varnish tliem. 

Make a little pad of cotton wool, saturate the lower 
portion with varnish ; rub it on a piece of waste paper to 
e<xualize the varnish, then work the pad over the side as 



quickly as possible, in a circular direction, Eeuew thai 
wool with varnish for the other side. Enough must be I 
taken on the pad to varnish the whole side, as the delajr I 
caused by renewing the varnish on the cotton, if not 1 
enough at first, will cause a streaked surface. When the I 
varnish is perfectly dry, the book must he again preeaed. J 
To do this, rub the gold-rag over the sides to give thein j 
a little grease, which will prevent the aides from sticking j 
to the pohshed plates. Place the book between the platea I 
as before, leaving out the pressing tins, and place in the I 
standing press. Only httle pressure must now be given. I 
If the press be screwed down too tightly the plates wiH I 
stick to the book. The varnish must be of good quality, I 
and perfectly dry, or the result will be the same. Half | 
an hour in the press will be found quite long 
Should the plates stick, there is no other i 
washing off the varnish with spirits of wine and the glaire ] 
and size with warm water ; then carefully re-preparing the 1 
whole surface as before. This is, however, an accident I 
which cannot happen if due care and judgment be ,1 


Graining is now used very much on calf books. This ] 
may be properly considered as a blind ornament. It i 
done by means of wooden, or better still with copper i 
plates cut out in various patterns, so as to form small 
squares, scales of fish, or an imitation of morocco. Place 1 
the volume between two of these plates even up to the I 
groove of the back, in the standing press, screw it tightly [ 
down. The impressions shoiJd be equal over the whole J 
surface. Nothing looks worse than a hold impression in 1 
one place and a slight one in another, so that it is rather j 
important that it be evenly pressed ; a second applicatioa 1 


of the plates is impracticable. Graining has the advan- 
tage of hiding any finger marks that may accidentally be 
on the calf, and also conceals any imperfections in the 

The state of the weather must in a great measure guide 
the finisher as to the proper number of volumes he ought 
to prepare at one time. The leather should always be 
a little moist, or in other words rather fre^k. In winter 
double the number of books may be prepared, and the 
gold laid on, than the dryness of a summer's day will 
admit of. If books are laid on over night the tools must 
be used very hot in working them the next morning, or 
the gold will not adhere. During summer, flies will eat 
the glaire from various places while the book is lying or 
standing out to dry, so that constant vigilance must be 
kept to avoid these pests. 

Eussia is prepared in the same way as calf, but is 
usually worked with more blind tools than with gold, 
and the sides are not as a rule polished, so that the size 
and glaire are dispensed with, except on those parts where 
it is to be finished in gold; and those portions need be 
only paste-washed and glaired once without any size. 


The dry preparation is used for silk, velvet, paper or 
any other material that would be stained by the employ- 
ment of the wet process. There are a number of receipts 
in the trade and in use. 

Take the white of eggs and dry it by spreading it some- 
what thickly over glass plates, taking care to preserve it 
from dust. It will chip off readily, when dry, if the glass 
has been previously vtry slightly oiled or greased. It must 


not be exposeil to more heat than 40' Reauin. ; or the quality I 
of the albumen will be destroyed. The dried maaa ia to be J 
well powdered in a porcelain mortar. 

Or, take equal portions of gum mastic, gum saudrao,.! 
gum arabic, and powder them well in a mortar. This € 
powder, if good work is desired, must be ground into an I 
impalpable powder. 

Put it into a box or bottle, and tie three or four thick- J 
nesses of fine muslin over the mouth. By tapping the 1 
inverted box, or shaking it over the lines or letters, tha J 
dust will fall through in a fine shower. The powder should 1 
fall only on the part to be gdt. Cut the gold into strips, I 
take it upon the tool, and work it rather hot. The over- , 
plus of the powder must be brushed away when thcrl 
finishing is completed. 

Velvet is very seldom finished beyond having the titlrf I 
put on, and this should be worked in blind first and with J 
moderately large letters, or the pile will hide them. 

Silk is finished more easily, and eaii, if care be taken, 
have rather elaborate work put upon it In such a case, I 
the lines or tools, which must be blinded-in first, may be [ 
glaired. For this purpose, the glaire must be put in a I 
saucer or plate in the free air for a day or two, so that I 
a certain amount of water or moisture of the glaire may ] 
be evaporated ; but it must not be too stiff so as to prevent j 
the brush going freely over the stuff. Great care, however, 
must be taken, or the glaire will spread and cause a stain, 
A thin coat of paste-water will give aUk a body and keep ] 
the glaire fram spreading to a certain extent, but I think f 
the beat medium for silk is the dry one, as it is always j 
ready for instant use. In using glaire the gold is laid on | 
the silk, but on no account must any oil or lard be rubbed i 
on it for the temporary holding of the gold. Kub the parts 
intended for the gold with the finger (passed through the 


hair) or with a clean rag lightly oiled, and when the tools 
are re-impressed a clean piece of flannel should be used to 
wipe ofif the superfluous gold. 

Blocking has been used lately on silk with some success 
in Grermany. The blocking plate is taken out of the press^ 
and the gold is laid on it, and then replaced in the press. 
The finishing powder is freely distributed over the silk 
side, which is laid on the bed of the press. On pulling 
the lever over, the block descends and imprints the design 
in gold on the sUk. This process may be applied to velvet,. 
but velvet never takes the sharpness of the design on 
account of the pile, so that as a rule it is left in its natural 


The Dutch, as. a nation, appear to have been the first 
to bind books in veUum. It was then a simple kind of 
casing, with hoUow backs. A later improvement of theirs 
was that of sewing the book on double raised cords, and 
making the book with a tight back, similar to the way in 
which our flexible books are now done, showing the raised 
bands. The ornamentation was entirely in blind, both on 
the back and sides, and the tools were of a very solid 

This art of binding in vellum seems to be entirely lost 
at the present day ; its imperishable nature is indeed its 
only recommendation. It has no beauty, it is exceedingly 
harsh, and as little variety can be produced except in the 
finishing it is not surprising that it has gradually gone out 
of fashion. ' 

There are two or three kinds of veUum prepared from 
calf skins at the present day, thanks to the progress of 


invention. First, we have the prepared or artist's vellum, ■ 
with a very white artificial surface ; then the Oxford J 
vellum, the surface of which is left in its natural state;,! 
the Roman vellum, which has a darker appearance. Parch- 
ment is an inferior animal memhrane prepared from sheep 
skins after the manner of vellum, and this is very success- 
fully imitated hy vegetable parchment, made by immersing 
unsized paper for a few seconds in a bath of diluted oil of J 
vitriol. This resembles the animal parchment so closely j 
that it is not easy to distinguish the difference. It ij 
very extensively in France for wrappering the better c 
of literature, instead of issuing them in cloth as is th^ 
custom here. 

The method of finishing vellum is altogether different^ 
to leather. On account of its very hard and compacfcv 
nature, it requires no other ground or preparation 1 
glaire for gold work. 

The cover should he very carefully washed with a 
sponge and clean water, to clean off any dirt or fingM 
marks, and to make the book look as fresh as possibla I 
This washing must be very carefully done by going oTflrv 
the surface as few times as possible. This caution applieiJ 
particularly to the prepared or artist vellum, as each wash-^r 
ing will take off a certain amount of the surface, so t 
the more it is damped and rubbed the more the surfaoe'.l 
will be disturbed and the beauty destroyed. It requires I 
some experience to distinguish the flesh and leather sm^l 
faces of prepsred vellum, but this experience must bel 
acquired, because it is absolutely necessary that the leathet ■ 
side should be outward when the hook is covered, for two! 
reasons : the flesh side is more fibrous and adheres bettexl 
to the boards than the leather side, and the leather sida| 
is less liable to have its surface disturbed in the process fl 


When dry, the parts that are to be gilt must be glaired, 
and as the glaire will show its presence, or more strictly 
speaking leave rather a dirty mark, the tools should be 
worked in blind, and the glaire laid on carefuUy up to their 
outer edge. When dry lay the gold on and work the tool 
in. Let the tools be only moderately warm; if too hot 
they will go through to the mill-board, leaving their mark 
as if they had been cut out with a knife. 

As a rule no very heavy tooling is ever put on vellum, 
as the beauty lies in keeping the vellum as clean as 
possible. As the tooling, comparatively speaking, is on 
the surface, owing to the thinness of the skin, it requires 
a very competent and clean workman to produce anything 
like good work on vellum. 

Vellum is of so greasy a nature that, if a title-piece of 
leather has to be put on, it will be found that there is a 
great difficulty to make it adhere properly unless some 
special precaution be taken. The best plan is to scrape 
the surface where the leather is intended to be placed 
with the edge of a knife. This will produce a rough and 
fibrous ground on which to place the pasted leather. This 
leather when dry, must be prepared with paste-water and 
glaire, in the same manner as with other books. 

In the foregoing instructions for finishing a book, the 
most that can be looked for towards teaching either the 
amateur or the unskilled workman, is to give him an idea 
how it is accomplished by practised hands. Pure taste, a 
correct eye, and a steady hand, are not given to all in 
common. The most minute instructions, detail by detail, 
cannot make a workman if Nature has denied these gifts. 
I have known men whose skUl in working a design could 
not be excelled, but who could not be trusted to gild a back 


without instructions. Others, whose ideas of design are 
not contemptible, cannot tool two panels of a back in. 
perfect uniformity. Some also have so little idea of har- 
mony of colour, that without strict supervision they would 
give every volume the coat of a harlequin. In a word, a 
first-rate bookbinder is nascitur non fit, and although the 
hints and instructions I have penned may not be sufficient 
to Tndke a workman, I trust they will be found of some 
value to the skilled, as well as to the less practised crafts- 
man and amateur. 




The growing demand for books that were at once cheap 
and pretty, became so strong that mechanical appliances 
were invented to facilitate their ornamentation ; and thus 
we have the introduction of the blocking press accounted 

I will not follow too closely the various improvements 
introduced at different periods, but roughly describe the 
blocking press, without which bookbinding cannot be done 
at the present day. There can be no doubt that this press 
owes its extensive, use to the introduction of publisher's 
cloth work. 

Formerly, when the covers of books were blocked, a 
smaU lying or other press was used. The block, previously 
heated, was placed on the book, and the screw or screws 
turned to get a sufficient pressure. It often happened 
that the pressure was either too much or too little: the 
block either by the one accident, sank into the leather too 
deeply, or by the other the gold failed to adhere, and it 
required a good workman to work a block properly. 

The first press to be noticed is a Balancier, having a 
moveable bed, a heating box, heated by means of red-hot 
irons, two side pillars to guide the box in a true line, and 
attached to it a screw connected at the top with a bar or 
arm, having at each extremity an iron baU. The block, 
having been fixed to a plate at the bottom of the heated 
box, the side of the book was laid down on the bed, and 
by swinging the arm round, the block descended upon the 


Look. The arm was then swung back, and the next bool^ 
put into place. It will be seen that this incurred a g 
s of time. 

The next improvement consisted in having a press that 
only moved a quarter circle, with almost iiiatautaneous 


action ; and another improvement connected with the bed 
was that by means of screws and guages, when the block 
was once set, a boy or an inexperienced hand might with 
ease finish off hundreds of copies all with equal pressure. 
By referring to the woodcut opposite, the press and its 
action will be seen and understood. The box may be 
heated with gas and kept at a constant and regulated 
temperature the whole time of working. It can be ad- 
justed to any amount of pressure, as it is regulated by the 
bed underneath. 

The next step in progress was the introduction of print- 
ing in different colours upon the cloth, and intermixing 
them with gold. Another of Messrs. Hopkinson & Cope's 
machines may be mentioned. They are made to be driven 
by steam, and will print and emboss from 500 to 600 
covers per hour. They are heated by steam or gas. The 
inking apparatus is placed at the back of the press, so 
that while the workman in placing another cover, the ink 
roller by automatic action inks the block ready for the 
next impression. The inking or printing of the covers is 
done without heat, so to avoid loss of time, an arrange- 
ment is made that the heating box can be cooled imme- 
diately by a stream of water passed through it. 

Messrs. Eichmond & Co. have just brought out a block- 
ing machine, which they claim to be superior to any in 
the trade. It will block at the rate of 700 to 800 covers 
per hour. It is made to heat either by steam or gas, and 
is also fitted so that the heating box can be immediately 
cooled. The pressure is obtained by one of the most 
powerful of mechanical appliances. It takes less power 
to drive, and a perfect distribution of the various coloured 
inks over the blocks is obtained by a new action. This 
press seems to give great satisfaction. 


The tools reqmied foi llo^-kin^ are called blocks < 
stampa These mty be composed of very small pieces, 
or may be of one block uut to the size of the book. In 
any case the 1 h tk has to he fi^tened to the moveable 

plate at the bottom of the heating box. To block tly 
sides of a book take a stout piece of paper and } 
upon the moveable plate.* Then take the book, and havi 
set the blocks upon the side in exact position, place t 
side or hoard upon which are placed the blocks, upon thi 
bed of the blocking press, leaving the volume hangio; 
down in front of the press. The bed is now to be fixe< 
so that the centre of the board is exactly under and i 

* The moveable plnte ie also calleil tlie plaUn. 

FINlSHmG, 145 

the centre of the heating box. When q^uite true, the sides 
and back guages are to be fixed by screws. Full the lever 
so that a slight pressure upon the plate be given ; release 
the press and take out the book and examine if all be 
correct. Some of the blocks may require a small piece of 
paper as a pad, so as to increase the pressure, others to be 
shifted a little. Now glue the back of the stamps and 
replace them in their respective places. Place the whole 
under the top plate in the press, heat the box, and pull 
the lever over; and let the book remain for some little time 
to set the glne. Take out the book, examine if perfectly 
square and correct, but replace it with a soft mill-board 
under the stamps and pull down the press. The lever 
must remahi over aud the blocks bo under pressure until 
the glue be hardened. 

Another method is to glue upon the plate a piece of 
thick paper and mark upon it the exact size of the book 
to be blocked. Strike upon the plate from the size the 
centre, and from that any other Unes that may assist in 
placing the blocks. Arrange the blocks upon the plate so 
as to form the design ; when correct, paste the blocks on 
their backs and replace them on the plate, When the 
paste adheres a little, turn the plate over and put it into 
the press. Apply heat to the box ; pull the lever over and 
when the paste is set, regulate the bed and guage.q. 

When the press is properly heated, throw back the lever : 
take out the mill-board from under the stamp, and regulate 
the degree of pressure required by the aide screw under 
the bed. Place upon the bed the aide to be stamped, hold 
it firmly against the guides with the left hand, and with 
the right draw the lever quickly to the front. This 
straightens the toggels and forces down the heating box, 
causing a sharp impression of the stamp upon the leather 
or other material. Throw or let the lever go back sharply 


and take out the book. If tke block be of such a 
that it must not be inverted, the whole of the covers musfr| 
be blocked on one aide first, and the block turned rouu 
for the other side, or the design will be upside down. 

Work for blocking in gold does not req^uire ao mnchj 
body or preparation as if it were gilt by hand. Morocco I 
can be worked by merely washing the whole surface with s 
little urine or weak ammonia, but it is safer to use a coabi 
of glaire and water mixed in proportion of one of thel 
former to three of the latter. The heat should not btfg 
great and slowly worked. 

Calf should have a coat of milk and water or thin paste»fl 
water aa a ground, and when dry another of glaire, Bothl 
should be laid on aa evenly as possible ; but if only poF>l 
tious are to be gilt, such as a centre-piece, and tlie rea 
dead, the centre-piece or otlier deaign should be pencilled 
in with great care. The design should be first slightly 
blocked in blind as a guide for the glairing. Tlie edge of 
the giaire alwaya leaves a black or dark stain. The heat.J 
required for calf is greater than for morocco, and thsv 
working must be done more quickly. 

Cloth requires no preparation whatever, the glue beneath^ 
and the coloured matter in the cloth gives quite enougll^B 
adheaiveneas, when the hot plate comes down, for the g 
to adhere. 

A great deal of taste may be displayed in the formatiottJ 
of patterns in this branch, but as publishers find thafefl 
books that are tawdrily gilt are better liked by the publigj; 
they are, of course, very well satisfied if their books aral 
well covered with gold ; so that this branch has not ad'^ 
vanced very much during the last few years. It wool 
be well if those who have the principal charge of thj 


work would strive, by the cultivation of elegant design, 
to correct the vitiated taste of the public, and seek by a 
study of dassic ornamentation to please the eye and satisfy 
the judgment rather than to attract the vulgar by glitter 
£,nd gaady decoration. 




Although coloured calf-skina may be bought almost as J 
cheaply as smooth calf (the term given to imcoloured i 
ones), yet there are ao many out-of-the-way places wherw J 
coloured calf caunot be procuredj that I give such iaatruc- 
tions as wiU enable any one to colour, sprinkle, and even. I 
marble his own books. 

The skins may, however, be procured already sprinkled J 
or marbled at most leather shops. This plan of sprinklinj 
and marbling the whole skin is good enough for cheap o 
half-bound work, but for extra work it is far better t 
sprinkle, marble or otherwise colour tlie leather when on the I 
book. HaDd-colouring is coming again into use, and by de-J 
gi'ees getting known more and more throughout the t 
but a great many secrets in the art have been lost. Before 
giving the names of the chemicals to be used, I must g 
a general caution, that if any acid be used on the leatbei^l 
it is essential to wash as much as possible of it out wi 
■water iminediaiely after it has done its work, or after a fi 
months the surface of the leather will be found to 1 
eaten away and destroyed. It is a fault of some of « 
binders at the present day, that if tliey use any chemica 
either on their leather or on their paper, they are i 
satisfied to use their acid weak, and allow it to do its worltfl 


slowly; and when the proper moment has arrived, stop 
its further action. They frequently use the acids as strong 
as possible, and either to save time or through ignorance 
of their chemical properties, do not wash out the residue. 
The consequence is, the leather or the paper rots. In 
order to avoid this, I will not recommend any chemicals 
that will destroy the leather, but give instructions for 
harmless preparations, by the use of which as great a variety 
of different styles may be executed as will, I trust, satisfy 
any reasonable expectation. 


Sulphate of iron or copperas is the chief ingredient in 
oolouring calf black. Used by itself, it gives a greyish 
tint, but if a coat of salts of tartar or other alkali be pre- 
viously used it strikes immediately a rich purple black. 
I'he name copperas is probably from the old and mistaken 
idea that the crystals contain copper. They have a pale 
greenish blue colour. It can be purchased at the rate of 
Id. per lb. from any drysalter. 

1. Into a quart of boiling water, throw a J-lb. of sulphate 
of iron, let it reboil, then stand to settle, and bottle the 
olear liquid for use. 

2. Boil a quart of vinegar with a quantity of old iron 
nails or steel filings for a few minutes. Keep this in a 
stone jar, and use the clear liquid. This can from time 
to time be boiled again with fresh vinegar. An old iron 
pot must be kept for boiling the black. 


1. Dissolve a J-lb. of salts of tartar in two pints of 
boiling water, and bottle it for use. 

This liquid is mostly used for colouring ; it has a very 



mellow touCj and is always used before the black when I 
a Btrong or deep colour is required. It is poisonous, and 4 
must not be used too strong on the calf or it "will corrode itLJ 
2, For a plain brown dye, the green shells of walnuts, I 
may be used. They should be broken as mueb a possible, 
mixed with water aud allowed to ferment. This liquid ] 
should then be strained and bottled for use. A pinch of ' 
salt thrown in will help to keep it. This does not in any- 
way corrode the leather, and produces the beat uniform tint. .. 



1. Picric acid dissolved in water forms one of th^ 
sharpest yellows. It is a pale yellow of an intense bitter I 
taste. It must not be mixed with any alkah in a dry 1 
state, as it forms a very powerful explosive compound. 
It is a dangerous chemical and should be carefully used. 
It may be bottled for use. 

2. Into a bottle put some Turmeric powder, and mix 
well with methylated spirit ; the mixtui'e must be aliaken 
occasionally for a few days until the whole of the colour 
is extracted. This is a very warm yellow, and producesJ 
a veiy good shade when used after salts of tartar. 

I do not give any other methods or receipts for pro- 1 
ducing colouis for calf, because, as before stated, the f 
introduction of fancy calf has rendered obsolete the old 1 
fashioned way of boihng and prepai'ing the different woods 
for making colours, and the above will be found sufficient 
for colouring calf in many diffei'ent ways. 

For all the following, a preparation or ground of paste- 
water must be put on the calf, that the liquids may not 
sink throiigh too much. The calf must be paste-washed ' 
all over equally, and allowed to get thoroughly dry. It 



will then be ready for the various methods. Perhaps to 
wash it over night and let it stand tUl next nioruing will 
be the best and surest plan. It matters very little whether 
the calf is on the book or in the skin. 


There are so many sprinkles, that it would be useless 
for me to enixmerate a number, as they are aU worked in 
the same way, by throwing the colour on finely or coarsely, 
as it may be wanted light or dark. 

Presuming that the paste or ground-wash be thoroughly 
dry, take hquid salts of tartar and dilute with cold water, 
one part salts to two of water, in a basin ; wash the calf 
with this liquid evenly, ming a soft sponge. The calf will 
require the wash to be applied two or tlu-ee times, tmtil 
a proper and unifonn tint be obtained. Each successive 
wash must be allowed to get thoroughly dry before the 
next be applied. 

The next process will be to sprinkle the book, with the 
boards extended or open. Two pieces of flat wood, about 
three feet long, four inches in width, and half-inch thick, 
will be found very useful for supporting the book. These 
rods must be supported at each end, so that the book may 
be suspended between them, with the boards resting on 
the rods nearly horizontally. Now put into a round pan 
some of the copperas fluid, and into another some of the 
solution of salts of tartar. Use a pretty large brush for 
each pan, which brush must be kept each for its own fluid. 
The sprinkling may be commenced. The brushes being 
well soaked in the fluids, should he well beaten out, using 
a piece of broomstick or a hand pin to beat on before 
beating over the book, unless a coarse sprinkle is desired. 
Whilst beating over the book, the hands should be held up 


high, and also moved about, so that a fine and equal spray 
may be distributed; and this should be continued until the 
desired depth of colour is attained. 

This may be varied by putting some geometrical design, 
cut out of thin mill-board, on the cover ; or if the book is 
on any special subject, the subject itself put on the cover 
will have a very pretty effect, and may be made emble- 
matical A fern or other leaf for botanical work as an 
instance. The sprinkle must in these cases be very fine 
and dark for the better effect. The leaf or design being 
lifted from the cover when the sprinkle is dry, will leave 
the ground dark sprinkle with a light brown leaf or design. 
Cambridge calf is done in this way by cutting a square 
panel of mill-board out and laying it on the sides. The 
square on the cover may be left brown or may be dabbed 
with a sponge. 


As the success of marbling depends upon the quickness 
with which it is executed, it is important that the colours, 
sponges, brushes and water, should be previously disposed 
in order and at hand, so that either of them can be taken up 
instantly. Another point to which attention must be 
directed is the amount of colour to be thrown on, and 
consequently the amount that each brush should contain. 
If too much colour (black) is thrown on, the result will be 
an invisible marble, or, a^ I once heard it expressed by s 
workman, " that it could not be seen on account of the 
fog;" if too little, no matter how nicely the marble is 
formed, it will be weak and feeble. 

Marbling on leather is produced by small drops of colour- 
ing liquids, drawn, by the fiowing of water down an in- 
clined plain, into veins and spread into fantastic forms 


Tesembling foliage — Whence, often called tree-marble. It is 
A process that requires great dexterity of hand and perfect 
<K)olness and decision, as the least hurry or want of judg- 
ment will ruin the most elaborate preparation. 

To prepare the book paste-wash it evenly all over, and 
to further equalize the paste-water, pass the palm of the 
hand over the board after washing it. When dry wash over 
with a solution of salts of tartar two or three times to get 
the desired tint When dry glaire the whole as even as pos- 
sible, and to diminish the froth that the sponge may occa- 
sion, put a few drops of milk into the glaire. Again, allow it 
to dry thoroughly. Put some fresh copperas into a pan, and 
some solution of salts of tartar into another, and soak each 
brush in its liquid. Place the book upon the rods, the 
boards extending over and the book hanging between. 
Should it be desired to let the marble run from back to 
foredge the back must be elevated a little, and the rods 
supporting the boards must be level from end to end. If 
the marble is to run from head to tail, elevate the ends of 
the rods nearest to the head of the book. The elevation 
must be very slight or the water will run off too quickly. 

Place a pail of water close at hand, in it a sponge to 
wash ofif ; and a bunch of birch to throw the water with. 
A little soda should be added to soften the water. Charge 
-each brush well, and knock out the superfluous colour 
until a fine spray comes from it. A little oil rubbed in 
the palm of the hand, and the brush well rubbed into it, 
wiU greatly assist the flow of colour from the brush, and 
also prevent the black colour from frothing. Throw some 
water over the cover in blotches with the birch, just suffi- 
cient to make them unite and flow downwards together. 
Now sprinkle some black by beating the black brush on a 
press pin, as evenly and as finely as possible. When suffi- 
cient has been thrown on, beat the brown in like manner 





over the extended boards. Wheu the veins are well struckj 
iato the leather, sponge the whole well with clean wate 
Have no fear in doing this as it wiU not wash off. ThM 
set the hook up to dry. 


The cover is to be prepared and sprinkled in the samoa 
manner as stated in marbling; the boards, however, muabj 
be bent a little, and a little water appUed by a sponge ii 
the centre of each board to give the necessary flow < 
water ; when the water is thrown on, it will flow toward** 
the centre or lowest part of the boards, and when theJ 
sprinkle is thrown on, a tree, as it were, will be formed.^ 
The centre being white forms the stem, and from 
branches will be formed by the gradual flow of the str 
of water as they run down. 

For marbling, every thing must be ready at hand beforg 
any water is thrown on, so that the water may not hav« 
time to run off before the colour- is applied. The wate 
must run at the same time that the spray is falling, or t 
failure will be the result. 

It has been said that marbling was discovered by i 
accident : that a country bookbinder was sprinkling aom 
books, when a bird, which was hung up in the shop, threiQ 
or splashed some water down on his books, the wate 
running, took some of the colour with it and formed veinj 
Liking the form it gave, the workman improved upon id 
and thus invented marbling. There is, however, no doubt 
that it came from Germany, 

The tree formed will be by a series of black veins, bad 
the idea having occurred that a tree should be green, 
studied the subject attentively, and have now succeedet 
in producing a green tree. I should not like to e 



that it has not been done before, but I have never seen 
one save of my own work. 

Tree calf seeiua to be coming into general use again, 
and to meet the demand for cheapneaa, a wood block has 
been cut resembling as closely as possible one done by 
the water process, and blocked in black on the calf; but, 
as may be expected, it has not found much favour with 
men of taste. 

This is a process with a sponge, charged with the black 
or the brown liquid, dabbed on the calf either aU over the 
cover or in successive order. Give the proper prepamtion 
tfl the calf, and be very careful tiiat the ground tint of 
brown be very even. Take a sponge of an open nature, so 
that the grain is pleasant to the eye ; fill it with black and 
squeeze out again, now dab it carefully over the calf. 
Repeat the operation with another sponge chained with 
brown. Cat's paw, French dab, and other various named 
operations all emanate from the sponge. When done 
properly this has a very good effect, and gives great relief 
to the eye when placed with a number of other books. 

All these marbles and sprinkles require practice, so that 
a first failure must not be regarded with discouragement. 
When one's hand has got into the method with these two 
or three colours it is astonishing how many different styles 
may be produced. In all this manipulation a better effect 
is obtained if a yellow tint be washed over the leather 
after the sprinkle or marble has been produced. Again, by 
taking coloured calf and treating it iu the same manner as 
white, some very pleasant effects ai'e brought out; and when 
the colours are well chosen the result is very good. Take for 
I instance a green calf and marble a ti'ee upon it, or take a 
I light slate colour and dab it all over with black and brown. 


In all operations with the copperas care must be taken 
that it does not get on the clothes, as it leaves an iron 
stain that cannot be easily got rid of. Keep a bason for 
each colour, and when done with wash it out with clean 
water. The same with the sponges : keep them as clean 
as possible ; have a sponge for each colour, and use it only 
for that colour. A piece of glass to put the sponges on 
will be of great use, and prevent the work-table or board 
from catching any of the colour. A damp book or damp 
paper laid on a board that has been so stained will most 
probably be damaged, even though it has waste paper 
between the work-board and book. No amount of washing 
will ever take away such a stain. 

When the book has been coloured, the edges and inside 
are to be blacked or browned according to taste, or in 
keeping with the outside. The book is then ready for 





Erom the foregoing chapters we learn that Bookbinding 
is divided into two distinct branches, viz.: "Extra and 
Common," or " Bookbinding by hand," and " Bookbinding 
by machinery." 

In the extra branch, the work proceeds in the following 
order, viz.: It is folded — collated, beaten or rolled — ^re- 
collated, the backs sawn in or marked up — sewn — the 
first and last sheets pasted up — end papers made and 
stuck on — glued up — rounded — backed — ^boards prepared, 
cut and put on — ^book pressed and cleaned off — edges cut, 
and coloured or gilt — headbanded — alined up or prepared 
for covering — covered — ^pasted down and finished if whole- 
boimd; if half-bound finished first, then cornered, sided, 
and pasted down ; then again pressed. 

The common work is: folded — collated — pressed — 
sawn in — sewn — ends put on — ^foredges cut flat — glued 
up — rounded — head and tail cut — edges coloured or gilded 
— ^backed — cases made, and finished (blocked) — ^books put 
into cases— pasted down and pressed off. 

Thus may be seen the entire difference in the effort to 
please the public, both in regard to their pockets, and the 
appreciation of tasty but more expensive designs. There 
is no doubt that books, as got up at the present day, are a 



marvel of cheapness. They make very pretty presents, and J 
are as good in work as the general run of cheap hook-wort. I 

But for real work a cctsed book is of no vahte whatever. 

Eespectmg Library hindinga a few words are necessaiy. ' 
A book for much use should he strongly sewn, for this is I 
the groundwork of all good book-hinding. It should have I 
good sound hoards and good leather, and with these three t 
essentials a book may he guaranteed to last almost a life- I 
time with daily but careful use. Most of the extra work J 
is now hut very weakly sewn, with three slips, and some- 1 
times with only two. Then straw boards, or some of in- 
ferior (juality, are too frequently used, and finally it is. J 
covered often with some imitation only of leather. 

The best binding for a library for general use ia 
morocco, flexible, with either morocco or vellum comerB 
and paper sides. If for common use, half-morocco 
without bands, the leather fastened on to the hack and the 
comers tipped with vellum, and paper sides. The title on 
the hack near the head, and no further gilding beyond a J 
line head and tail, with the date at foot. 


As photographs are coming so much into use as hoolQ 
illustrations, a few words respecting the treatment of thent-l 
will be necessary. In mounting them, white hoards should,! 
as a rule, be avoided, because the colour of the hoards is ^ 
more pure than the lights of the photogi-aph, and c 
the effect. A toned or tinted board should be used. 

In mounting photographs, they should be evenly trimmed J 
and pasted all over with thin best glue or starch, and well 1 
rubbed down with a piece of clean paper over the print. I 
If any of the glue or starch oozes out from the sides, it I 
should be wiped ofl' with a clean damp sponge. As photo- I 
graphs loose their gloss in mounting, they must be rolled. J 
afterwards in order to restore it. 


To remove a photograph from an old or dirty mount, the 
surplus of the mount should be cut away. It should then 
be put into a plate of cold water and be allowed to float 
off. A little warm water wiU assist it coming off more 
easily, but should it not do so, the photograph has pro- 
bably been mounted with a solution of india-rubber, and 
in that case, by holding it near the fire, the rubber will 
melt, and the print may easily be peeled off. 

Books having stains in them should be pulled to pieces 
and thrown into a decoction of alum and hot water. This 
will in most cases take out the stains, but the book should 
always be passed again through a thin solution of size to 
give body to the paper. The whole process of washing, 
sizing and mending old and valuable books is too delicate 
and difl&cult to be intrusted to other than the most ex- 
perienced hands, and it would be better for the simple 
amateur not to make the attempt at the risk of spoiling 
a precious volume. 

The following, taken from the English Mechanic, June 
19th, 1874, is I think of great use to the professional 
restorer of old books, and wiU give the amateur an idea of 
what has to be done sometimes : — 


" M. Rathelot, an Officer of the Paris Law Courts, has 
succeeded in an ingenious manner in transcribing a number 
of the registers which were burnt during the Commune. 
These registers had remained so long in the fire that each 
of them seemed to have become a homogeneous block, 
more like a slab of charcoal than anything else ; and when 
an attempt was made to detach a leaf it fell away into 


" He first cut off the back of the book, he then ateepeclT 
the hook in water, and afterwards exposed it, all wet as it 
was, to the heat at the mouth of a warming pipe (ealori- 
f^re), the water as it evaporated, raised the leaves one by _ 
one, and they could be separated, but with extraordinoi 
precaution. Each sheet was then deciphered and tra 
scribed. The appearance of the pages was very curious — * 
the writing appeared of a dull black, while the paper was 
of a lustrous black, something like velvet decorations on 
a black satin ground, so that the entries were not di£6culb | 
to decipher." 

ne by _ 



Books placed in a Ubrary shoiild be thoroughly dusted 
two or three times a year, not only to keep them in all 
their freshness, but also to prevent any development of 
insects and to examine for signs of dampness. The in- 
terior of a hook also asks that care, which unfortunately 
is neglected very often. After liaving taken a book from 
the shelves it should not be opened before ascertaining 
that the top edge is not covered with dust. If it is a book 
that has had the edge cut, it should be dusted with a soft 
duster, or tlie dust simply blown off. If it is a book which 
has uncut edges it should be brushed with rather a hard 
brush. By this method in opening the volume one need 
not be afraid that the dust will enter between the leaves 
and soil them. 

A library has generally three kinds of enemies to be 
guarded against, viz. : insects, dampness, and rats or mice. 
Everyone knows how to guard against dampness and rats 
or mice. Several means are known how to keep insects 
at a distance. The first consists in the proper choice of 
woods : these are cedar, cypress, mahogany, sandal, or vsn— 
dry and sound oak. All these are compact or ( ' 

or of vBrifl 



strong aroma, and are such as insects do not like to pierce. 
Another aotiice of danger is the use of chemicals in the 
liinding of books. 

The insects that make ravages in books multiply very 
rapidly ; and very fewj libraries are free from them. The 
microscopic eggs, that are left by the female, give biith to 
a smaU grub, which pierces the leather boards and book 
for its nourishment, and to get to the air. These are 
familiarly called bookworms, but by the scientific world 
they are known as hypolhenemus e^-wditus which eats the 
leather, and anohiivm. striatum which bores through the 
paper. The larva of the dermestes also attack wood as well 
as books. 

An instance of how these insects were once managed : — 
M. Fabbroni, Director of the Museum of Florence, who 
possessed a magnificent library, found, after a year's ab- 
sence, in the wood and furniture, great havoc made by 
moths, and his books spoilt by the larv^, so much so that 
it gave a fair promise of the total destruction of the whole, 
unless he could find a method to exterminate the pests. 
He first painted the holes over with wax, but shortly after 
he found new worms which killed every particle of wood 
they touched. He plunged the ordinaiy wood in arsenic 
and oil, and other portions he anointed once every month 
with olive oil, in which he had boiled arsenic, until the 
colour and odour announced that the solution was perfect. 
The number then diminished. But a similar method could 
not be employed for books. M. Fabbroni resolved to 
anoint the back and sides with aquafortis ; in an instant 
the damustes abandoned their habitation, and wandered to 
the wood ; the oil having evaporized they commenced to 
develope again, and again began their attacks on the newly 
bound books. He saw amongst the many spoilt books on© 
remaining intact, and on inquiry found that turpentine 


had been nsed in the paste. He then ordered that for the 
future all paate should be mixed with some such poison. 
This precaution had the le'mficicd result. 

It is not only in Europe that these worms make such 
ravages in libraries. In the warmer climes they appear to 
be even more dangerous. And it is a fact that certain 
libraries are almost a mass of dust, by the books (and 
valuable ones) falling to pieces. Nearly all authors on 
this subject agree that the paste which is used is the first 
caiiae, or a great help, to all the waste coinniitted by these ■ 
dangerous Mbliophobes. Then something must be put into 
the paste which will resist all these insects and keep thej 
at a distance. The most suitable for this is a mineral salt^i 
such as alum or vitriol; vegetable salts, such as potash, 
dissolve readily in a moist air and make marks or spots i 
the books. From experience, it is most desirable to bamBh 
everything that may encourage worms, and as it is veiy 
rare that persons, who occupy themselves with books, are 
not in want of paste, for some repairs or other, either toj 
the bindings or to the books, subjoined is a method < 
preserving the paste and keeping it moist and free fronfl 

Alum, as employed by binders, is not an absolute^ie 
servative, although it contributes greatly to the preset 
tion of the leather. Eesin as used by shoemakers : 
preferable, and in effect works in the same way ; but oil'l 
of turpentine has a greater effect. Anything of strongj 
odour, like aniseed, bei^amot, mixed perfectly but 
small quantities, preserves the paste during an unlimited! 

Or, make the paste with flower, throw in a small quantity 
of ground sugar and a portion of corrosive siiblimaCe. Thi 
sugar makes it pliant and prevents the formation of c 
on the top. The sublimate prevents insects and fermenta 


tion. This salt does not prevent moisture, but as two or 
three drops of oil are sufficient to prevent it, all causes of 
destruction are thus guarded against. This paste exposed to 
the air hardens without decomposition. If it is kept in 
an air-tight pot or jar, it will be always ready, without any 
other preparation. 


The best glue may be known by its paleness, but French 
glue is now manufactured of inferior quality, made pale 
by the use of acid, but which on boiling turns almost 
black. Good glue immersed in water for a day will not 
dissolve, but swell, while inferior will partly or wholly do 
so, according to quality. 

In preparing glue a few cakes should be broken into 
pieces and put into water for twelve hours, then boiled and 
turned out into a pan to get cold ; when cold it may be cut 
out and placed in the glue-pot as wanted. This naturally 
refers to when large quantities are used, but an amateur 
may boil his in his glue-pot after soaking it in water. 

Glue loses a great deal of its strength by frequent re- 
melting. It should always be used as hot as possible. 






1. — Avoid a dry heat as much as you woiild a. damp- 

atmosphei*. The one destroys as much as the 

other. The former wall affect the hinding and the 

latter the paper. When reading, keep all hooks 

from the induence of the fire. Ifever keep any 

booka neai- the ceiling where the room is illami- 

nated by gas. 

2. — Never wet your fingers in turning over the leaves, 

but turn them over from tho head. Catch each 

succeeding leaf up by the fore finger on the top 

comer as neat the t'oredge aa possible. 

3. — Never put cards or folded documents into a book or 

it win break the back. Keep such thinga in a 


4. — Never read during meals. Crumbs and grease are 

ruinous to books. 
5.— Never turn a corner down to keep a place, but put 

a piece of paper projectiug at the head as a mark. 
6. — Never push or pull a book along the table. To 
avoid scratches, put a book down flat and firmly, 
and take it up the same way. 
7. — Never pull books out of the shelves by the head- 
hand, or suffer them to stand long npon the foredge. 
In doing the former the back is apt to be pulled 
or forced, by the latter the back gets out of shape. 
8. — ^Always open a book in a gentle maimer and with a 
reverent spirit, especially such as are newly bound ; 
and never confine the leaves with the points of tlie 


thumbs; in doing so it breaks the back. Lay it 
upon a flat surface, and open it lightly, pressing 
upon the open leaves, and taking a few sheets at a 
time ; go through the book until the requisite free- 
dom is obtained. 

'9. — ^Always use a paper knife or folder to cut up the 
leaves of uncut books," so that the edges may be 
smooth and even. 

10. — Treat books gently, for they are Mends that never 
change. We benefit by their advice, and they 
exact no confessions. 






All-Alono. — When a volume is sewed, and the thread paasea 
from kettle-stitch to kettle-atitch, or from end to end in 
each sheet, it is said to he sewed " ail-along." 

Arming Pkess. — A species of blocking press used by hand; so 
called from the use of it to impress armorial bearings on 
the sides of books, 

Abterisk. — A star used by printers at the bottom of the pages 
meant to supply the places of those cancelled {see also 

Backing Boards. — Used for backing and for forming the 
groove. They are made of very hard wood and some- 
timeB faced with iron; are thicker on the edge intended 
to form the groove than upon the edge that goes towards 
the fore-edge, so that the whole power of the lying 
press may be directed towards the back. 

Backing Hammer. — The hanmier used for backing and round- 
ing ; it has a broad flat face similar to a shoemaker's 

Backing Machine. — A small machine introduced for backing 
cheap work. 

Bands. — The cord whereon the sheets of a volume are sewn. 
When a book is sewn " flexible " the bauds appear upon 
the back. '\\'Tien the back is sewn so as to imbed the 

168 GL0S3AET. 

cord in the back, the appearance of raised bands t^ 

proiinced by glueing narrow strips of leather 

back before the volume is covered. 
Band Driver. — A blunt chisel used in forwarding, to c< 

any irregularities in the bands of flexible backs. 
Band Nippers. — Flat pincers used for nipping up the band ia 

Beading. — The small twist formed by the twisting the silk ot 

cotton in head-banding. 
Beating Hammer. — The heavy shortrhandled hammer ■aaei 

in beating {generally about 10 lbs.) 
Beating Stone. — The bed on which books are beaten. 
Bevelled Boards. — Very heavy boards with bevelled edges: 

nsed for antique work. 
Bleed. — When a book has been cut down into the print 

ia said to have been bled. 
Blind-tooled.— 'WTien a book has been impressed with tool 

without being gilt, it is said to be "blind-tooled' 

" antique." 
Blocking Press. — Another and more general term for the 

arming press ; one of the chief implements used in cloth 

work. Used for finishing the side of a cover by a 

mechanical process. 
Blocks or Blocking Tools. — An engraved stamp used for. 

finishing by means of the blocking press. 
Boards.- — Are of various kinds, each denoting the work it 

intended for, such as pressing boards, backing, cuttin 

bnmishing, gilding, &c. 
Bodkin.— A strong and short point of steel fixed in a wooden 

handle, for making the holes through the mill-boards. 

Tlie slips upon the back of the book are laced through 

the holes for attaching the mill-board to the book. 


ook. ^^M 


Bole. — A red earthy mineral, resembling clay in character, 

used in the preparation for gilding edges. 
Bolt. — The fold in the head and foredge of the sheets. The 

iron bar with a screw and nut which secures the knife 

to the plough. 
Bosses. — Brass or other metal ornamentations fastened upon 

the boards of books; for ornament or preservation. 
Broken over, — When plates are turned over or folded a short 

distance irom the back edge, before they are placed in 
I the volume, so as to facilitate their being turned easily 

or laid flat, they are said to be broken over. When a 
I leaf has been turned down the paper is broken. 

Burnish. — The gloss produced by the application of the 

burnisher to the edges. 
Burnishers. — Pieces of agate or bloodstone affised to con- 
venient handles. 
Cancei^. — Leaves containing errors which are to be cut out 

and replaced by corrected pages {see Asterisk). 
Cap. — The envelope of paper used to protect the edges while 

the volume is being covered and finished. 
Case-work.— When the cover is made independent of the 

book, the book being afterwards fastened into it. EeferH 

principally to cloth and bible work. 
Catch-word. — A word used and seen in early printed books 

at the bottom of the p^e, which word is the first on 

the following page. To denote the first and last word 

in an encycloptedia or other book of reference. 
Centre Tools. — Independent tools cut for the ornamentation 

of the centre of panels and sides. 
Clasps. — The hook or catch used for fastening the boards 

k together when the book is closed; used formerly on 
almost every book. 

170 GL03SAHT. 

Clearing-out. — Removing the waste-paper, and paring away« 

any superfluous leather upon the inside, preparatory i 

paseting down the end papers. 
Cloth. — Prepared calico, embossed wjth different patfce: 

used for cloth bindings. 
Collating. — Examining the sheets by the signatures a 

volume has been folded, to ascertain if they be in c* 

Combs. — Instruments vnth vire teeth used in marbling. 
Corners. — The triangular tools used in finishing backs and 

sides. The leather or material covering the corners of 

half-bound books. The metal ornaments used usnally 

in keeping with clasps. J 

Cropped. — When a book has been cut down too much it is 1 

said to be cropped. 1 

Cut down.— When a plough-knife dips downward out of the 

level it is said to "cut down;" on the contrary, if the 

point is out of the level upwards it is said to " cut up." . 
Cut up. — Same as the last explanation. 
Divinity Calf.— A dark brown calf used generally for religioui 

books, and worked in blind or antique. 
Dentelle.^ — A style resembling lace work, finished with v 

iinely cut tools. 
Doubled. — When in working the gold a tool is inadvertent!; 

not placed exactly in the previous impression in blind, 

it is said to be "doubled." 
Edge-rolled. — When the edges of the boards are rolled,] 

either in blind or in gold. 
End-papers. — The papers placed at each e 

and pasted down upon the boards. 
Fillet. ^A cylindrical tool used in finishing, upon vrbich ■ 

line or hnes are engraved. 


Finishing, — The department that receives the volumes after 
they are put in leather. The ornaments placed on the 
volume. The one who works at this branch is termed 
a finisher. 

Finishing Fbess. — ^A small lying press, but fashioned some- 
what for convenience sake. 

FINISHINQ Stove. — A heating box or fire used for warming 
tlie various tools used in fi 

Flexible. — When a book is sewn on raised bands, and the 
thread is passed entirely round each band. Is the 
strongest sewing done at the present time. Tiiia term 
is often misused for limp work, because the boards are 
limp or flexible. 

Folder, — A flat piece of bone or ivory used in folding sheets, 
and in many other manipulations ; called also a folding 
stick. A female engaged in folding sheets. 

Folding Machine. — ^A machine invented to fold sheets, 
generally used in newspaper offices. 

Foredge. — The front edge of a book. 

Forwarding. — The branch that takes the books after they 
are sewed, and advances them until they are put into 
leather ready for the finisher. The oue who works at 
this branch ie called a forwarder. ^. 

Fdll-bound. — When the sides and back of a volume are 
covered with leather it is said to be full-bound. 

Gathering. — Collecting the various sheets from piles when 
folded, so that the arrangement follows the sequence of 
the signatures. 

Gilt. — Applies to both the 

Glaibe. — The white of eggs beaten up. 

and to the ornaments in 


Gold Cushion. — A cushion for cutting the gold leaf oi 

Gold Knife. — The knife for cutting the gold ; long and q^nite 

Gouge. — A tool used in finishing ; it ia a lino forming the J 

segment of a circle. 
Geaining Boaebs.— Boards used for producing a grain on calf J 

and russia books. Grain of various form is cut in wooc 

and by pressure the leather upon wliich the boards a 

laid receives the impression. 
Graining Plates.— Metal plates same as above. 
Guards.^ Strips of paper inserted in the backs of boota J 

intended for the insertion of plates, to prevent 1 

book being uneven when filled; alao the strips upc 

which plates are mounted. 
, Guides. — The groove in which the plough moves upon t 

face of the cutting press. 
Guillotine. — A machine having a perpendicular action, i 

for cutting paper. 
Guinea-edge. — A roll with a pattern similar to the edge of'l 

an old guinea. 
Half-bound.— When a volume is covered with leather upon4 
the back and comers ; and the sides with paper or cloth. M 

Hand-letters. — Letters fixed in handles; used singly fori 

Head and Tail. — The top and bottom of a book. 
Head-band. — The silk or cotton ornament worked at 1 

head and tail of a volume, as a finish and to make ti 

back even with the boards. 
Imperfections. — Sheets rejected on account of being in 
mperfect, and for which others are reqnin 

make the work complet*. 


In Boards. — ^When a volume is cut after the mill-boards are 
attached, it is said to be cut in boards. 

Inset. — ^The inner pages of a sheet, cut off in folding certain 
sizes ; to be inset in the centre of the sheet. 

Joints. — ^The projection formed in backing to admit the mill- 
boards. The leather or cloth placed from the projection 
on to the mill-board is called a joint. 

KiSTTLE-STiTCH. — ^Tho chain-stitch which the sewer makes at 
the head and tail of a book. A corruption of either 
chain stitch, or catch-up stitch. 

Keys. — ^Little metal instruments used to secure the bands to 
the sewing press. 

Knocking-down Iron. — ^A piece of iron having a small leg in 
the centre by which it is secured in the lying press. 
When fastened there it is used to pound or beat with a 
hammer the slips into the boards after they are laced 
in, so that they do not shew when the book is covered. 

Laced in. — ^When the mill-boards are attached to the volume 
by means of the slips being passed through holes made 
in the boards, they are said to be laced in or drawn in. 

Law Calf. — ^Law books are usually bound in calf left wholly 
uncoloured, hence the term for white calf. 

Lettering Block. — ^A piece of wood, the upper surface being 
slightly rounded upon which side labels are lettered. 

Lettering Box. — ^A wooden box in which hand letters are 
kept {see Hand-Letters). 

Lining Papers. — ^The coloured or marbled paper at each end 
of the volume. Called also end papers. 

Marbler. — One who marbles the edges of books and paper. 

Marbling. — ^The art of floating various colours on a size^ 
from which it is transferred to paper or book edges. 
To stain or vein leather like marble. 


Marking-UP. — WhoH the back of a book ia being markeil fOT I 
flexible sewing. 

Mill-board. — ^The boards that are attached to the boot J 
Various Wnds are in use now; the most conmion is | 
made of straw, the best of old naval cordage. 

Mitred.— When the lines in finishing meet each other at right I 
angles without overrunning each other, they are said to j 
be mitred. Joined at an angle of 4B°. 

Mutton -THUMPING. —A term used in byegone days, indicating. J 
the common binding of school hooka in sheep-skin. 

Mutton-thumper.— An old term indicating a bad workma: 

Off-set.— The impression made by the print against the I 

opposite page, when a book has been rolled or beaten I 

before the ink be dried. (Also Set-off.) 
Out of Boakds. — When a volume is cut before the boards are 1 

afBxed,jt is done out of boards. Nearly the whole of J 

common work is done out of boards. 
Out of Truth. — When a book is not cut square, 
OvERCARTiNfi. — An operation in sewing, when the work cod- 1 

sists of single leaves or plates. Over sewing. 
PAiJ.Fr, — The tools used for finishing across backs. 
Panel. — The space between the bands. 
Papering-up. — Covering the edges after they are gilt, to- 5 

protect them while the volume is being covered t 

finished (see Cap). 
Paring. — Eeducing the edges of the leather by forming a 

gradual slope. 
Paking Knife. — The knife used for paring. 
Paste-wash. — Paste diluted with water. 
Pencil. — A small brush of camel's hair used for glairing. 

Pieced. — Any space that has another leather upon it, 

lettering piece. 
Plough. — The inatniment used for cutting the edges when 

book is in the lying press. 
Plouoh Knife. — The knife attached to the plough. 
Polisher. — ^A steel instrument for ^ving a gloss to the leather 

after finishing. 
Press, — Of various kinds, viz. : — lying, cutting, standing, 

Hocking, finishing. 

Press Pin. — Abarofii'onused as a lever for standing presses; 
a smaller kind for lying presses. 

Pressing Boards. — Boards used for pressing books between. 

Pressing Blocks. — Blocks of wood used for filling up a 
standing press when there are not enough books. 

Proof. — The rough edges of certain leaves left uncut by the 
plough, are "proof" that the book is not cut down {see 
also " Witness "). 

Easped.— The sharp edge taken ofi' miU-boards. 

Register. — The ribbon placed in a volume for a marker, A 
list of signatures attached to the end of early-printed 
books for the use of the binder. In printing — when 
on looking through a leaf the print on the recto and 
Terso is not exactly opposite, it is said to be md of 

EoLLiNG Machine. — ^A machine introduced to save the labour 
of beating, the sheets being passed between two re- 
volving cylinders. 

EoLi^. — Cylindrical ornamental tools used in finishing. 

EUN-CF. — \Vhen the back has a fillet run irom head to tail 
without being mitred at each band, it is saiA to be 
" run-up." 

175 ■ 

as a H 

:nthe H 


EuNNER. — ^The front board used in cutting edges. 

Sawing-in. — ^When the back is sawn for the reception of the 
cord in sewing. 

Sawing Machine. — ^A machine for sawing the backs of book» 

Shears. — ^Large scissors used for cutting up mill-boards. 

Sheep. — ^An old term for all common work covered in sheep« 

Sewer. — ^The person who sews the sheets together on the 
sewing press — generally a female. 

Sewing Machine. — ^A recent invention for the sewing of book& 
with wire instead of thread. 

Setting the Head-band. — ^Adjusting the leather in covering 
so as to form a kind of cap to the head-band. 

Shaving Tub. — ^The paper cut from the edges of a volume 
are called shavings. The receptacle ' into which they 
faU while the forwarder is cutting is termed the shaving, 

Signature. — The letter or figure under the footline of the 
first page of each sheet, to indicate the order of arrange- 
ment in the volume. 

Size. — ^A preparation used in finishing and gilding, formerly 
made with vellum, but can now be bought ready for 

Slips. — ^The pieces of twine that project beyond the back or 
the volume after it is sewn. 

Squares. — ^The portions of the boards that project beyond the- 
edges after the book is cut. 

Stabbing. — ^The term used formerly for piercing the boards^ 
with a bodkin for the sKps to pass through; more 
generally known now as " holeing." The operation of" 
piercing pamphlets for the purpose of stitching. 


Stabbing Machine. — A small macliine used for maJdng the 
holes through the backs of pamphlets. 

Standing Press. — ^A fixed heavy press with a perpendicular 
screw over the centre. 

Start. — ^When any of the leaves are not properly secured in 
the back, and they project beyond the others, they are 
said to have started. When the back has been broken 
by forcing the leaves they start. 

Sttffener. — ^A thin mill-board used for various purposes. 

Stitching. — ^The operation of passing the thread through a 
pamphlet for the purpose of securing the sheets together. 

Straight-edge. — A small board having one edge perfectly 

Stops. — Small circular tools, adapted to " stop " a fillet when 
it intersects at right angles ; used to save the time 
mitreing would occupy. 

Tenon Saw. — ^A small saw used by bookbinders for sawing 
the books for sewing. More strictly speaking a car- 
penter's tool. 

Title. — The space between the bands upon which the lettering 
is placed. The leaf in the beginning of a book de- 
scribing the subject. 

Tools. — ^Applied particularly to the hand stamps and tools 
used in finishing. 

Trimming. — Shaving the rough edge of the leaves of a book 
that is not to be cut. 

Trindle. — ^A thin strip of wood or iron. 

Turning-up. — ^The process of cutting the foredge in such a 
manner as to throw the round out of the back until the 
edge is cut. All books that are cut in boards have a 
pair of trindles thrust between the boards and across 
the back to assist the operation. 



Tying-up. — ^The tying of a volume after the cover has been 
drawn on, so as to make the leather adhere to the sides 
of the bands ; also for setting the head-band. 

Type. — ^Metal letters used in printing and lettering. 

Type-holder. — An instrument for holding the type when 
used for lettering. 

Varnish. — Used as a protection to the glaire when polished 
on the covers of books. 

Whipping. — ^Another term for overcasting, but when longer 
stitches are made. 

Witness. — When a volume is cut so as to show that it has 
not been so cut down, but that some of the leaves 
have still rough edges. These imcut leaves are called 
" Witness " {see Proof). 

Wrinkle. — ^The uneven surface in a volume, caused by not 
being properly pressed or by dampness, also caused by 
improper backing. 


Acids for leather 
Advantage of graining 
-, dried . 


. 148 
. 135 
. 74 
. 109 
. 162 

Alum for paste . 

American standing press (cut) 15 

Amount of grindmg colour 

for marbling . . .67 
Ancient bookbinding . . xv 
Aniseed for paste . .162 
Antique finishing . .111 

work as a decoration . 112 

work, leather for . 113 

tools, method of work- 
ing 112 

Appearance of library . . 92 
Archaeological works . . 92 
Arming press . . 107-141 
Aroma of bookcase . . 161 
Arrangement of a book . 9 
Artist's vellimi . . . 138 
Art of finishing . . . 101 
Athenaeum, letter on trim- 
ming . . . .38 
Attaching boards to book . 53 
Azur^ tools .... 102 

Back, finishing a . . . 113 

in progress . . . 129 

polishing . . . 130 

Backs mitred . . .119 

run up . . . 119 

Backing .... 44 

boards . . .44 

Backing machine (cut) . 45 
Balancier .... 140 
Banding up back . . 83 

Band-mppers . . .89 
Bands, stuff making . . 84 
Barrroll .... 122 
Baumgarten. . . . xxii 


Beading in head-banding . 81 
Beating .... 5 

hammer ... 5 

old books ... 7 

stone .... 5 

Beauty of blind work . .115 
^— - of burnishing . . 76 

of gilt edges . . 74 

Benedict .... xxii 
Bergamote for paste . .162 
Bevelled boards . . .111 
Bibliophobes . . .162 
Binding in France . . 105 
Bindings of Derome . . 104 

of Gas9on . . . 104 

of Henry III. . . 103 

■, Italian . , . 102 

Black for leather . . 148 

mill-boards . . 48 

Blind finishing . . .111 

tooling a side . .114 

work, colour of . .112 

Block of 1 7th century, design 72 
Blocked covers . . . 102 
Blocking .... 140 

on silk . . . 137 

, preparation for . . 146 

— :— press .... 140 

, taste in . . . 146 

Blocks . . . .144 

for pressing . . 54 

Boards, squaring . . .49 
Body colours . . .66 
Bolt knife . . . .57 
Bookbinder's cloth . . 87 
Books, cutting . . .57 

formed of palm leaves . xvi 

, stains in . . . 159 

Bookworms. . . . 161 
Botanical books . . .92 
Botany, tools for, books on . 107 




Branches of bookbinding . 157 

Brown for leather . . 149 

Brushes for marbling . . 67 

Burnishers . . . 67-74 

Burnishing, manner of . 76 

marble paper . . 70 

Burnt documents, deciphering 1 59 

umber . . .64 

Burr on knife . . .88 

Byzantine coatings . . xvi 



. , 87-90 

, antique . . .111 

books, pressing . .133 

colouring . . .148 

finishing . . .125 

, inlaid work . .125 

, preparation for blocking 146 

, preparing for finishing 126 




' 109 

, 77 


, 79 

. 155 


. xvi 



. 72 

. 17 

. 110 

^ smooth 
Calico for head-banding 
Cambridge caK . 
Camphor for glaire 
Capping up edges 

Catgut for head-banding 
Cat's paw . 
Celtic, design 
Century, 6tii 
, 15th . 


, l7th, design 

Chain stitch 

Charcoal for finishing . 
Cleaning off books when in 
standing press 

off flexible work 

' off stick 

Cloth bookbinders . 87, 91 

joints . . 34, 96 

, preparation for blocking 146 

cases . . . ,61 

Cobb paper . . .28 

Collatmg .... 8 
Coloured plates . . 9, 12 

paste paper . . 30 

Colouring calf . . . 148 
edges .... 64 

Colour of blind work 


Colours for books 

for marbling 

for sprinkling 

. 112 

. 64 
. 92 
. 66 
. 65 
. 69 
. 67 

Comb marble 

Combs for marbling . 

Compound action screw press 

(cut) . . . .55 
Cc^peras .... 149 

, stains of . . . 155 

Cord, sizes of . . .18 
Cork for graining . . 88 
Corrosive sublimate for paste 1 62 
Cost of marble paper . . 71 
Cotton wool . . . 109 
Cover, cutting out . . 87 
Covering . . . .87 

, perfection in . .90 

white morocco . . 90 

Covers, blocked and hand- 
finished .... 102 
Crusaders .... xvii 
Cut, against . . .47 
Cutting boards . . .47 

books . . . .57 

gold leaf . . . 76 

in boards . . .60 

leather when paring . 88 

machines . . .61 

machine, hand (cut) . 62 

out cover . . .87 

out of boards . . 61 

— ^ press . . .57 

press, plough and knives 

. . ... 58 
Slips . . . .53 
tail of a book . . 59 
the foredge . . .59 
the head of a book . 58 

Dabs 165 

Dampness in books . .160 
Deciphering burnt documents 159 
Deptn of sawing-in • . .17 
Dermestes . . . .161 
Derome .... xxi 
, bindings of . . 104 



Design, Celtic 


Du Sueil 









Roger Payne 


. 121 

. XX 

. 86, 156 
. 19, 78 
33, 46, 140 
. 103, xix 

93, 147, xxii 

. 112, xvii 

. 83 

4, 15, 27, 39, 

41, 52, 56 


Seventeenth century . 72 

Venetian , 31, 97, xvii 

Diane buildings . . . 102 
Dibdin, Dr. ... 92 

Difficulties in head-banding. 80 

in marbling . . 68 

Discovery of tree marbling . 154 
Dissolving gum . . .67 
Distinctive marks in book- 
binding of 16th century . 102 
Dividers . . . .110 
Doubling tools . . .114 
Drawing in ... 53 

Dried albumen . . . 109 
Dry medium for finishing 115, 135 
Dull gilt edges . . .76 
Duplicate sheets . . .14 
Dusting books . . . 160 
Dutch marble paper . . 29 

Eastern specimens 
Edges, capping up 

, colouring . 

f gilt in round 

, gilt on red 

, marbled 

of boards, finishing 

y painted 

f plain gilt 

, sprinkling . 

, tooled gilt . 

-, yellow 

. xvu 

. 78 

. 64 

. 73 


. 66 

. 122 

77, XX 

. 73 

. 64 



Effect of marbling on leather. 152 

of polishing . . 133 

Egyptian design . 86, 156 

Emblematical sprinkling 

tools . 

Embroidered velvet 

End papers 

y method of making 

putting on 
Enemies to books 
Extracting colour from 


. 152 
. 107 
. xxi 
. 28 
. .30 
. 34 
. 160 

. 123 

Fastening off head-banding . 81 
Fifteenth century . xviii 
FiUets . . . .108 

Filling in whole bound books 94 

up holes in back . . 85 

Finger brush for sprinkling 65 
Finisher, guided by weather 135 
Finishing a back . .113 

, antique . . . Ill 

, art of . . . 101 

a side . . . 120 

, blind . . . Ill 

edges of boards . . 122 

, gold .... Ill 

half morocco . . 116 

, head-band . . .122 

imitation morocco . 122 

inside .... 121 

inside boards . . 131 

y monastic . . .113 

, originally . . . 106 

press .... 113 

sides .... 130 

silk . . . .136 

stove (cut) . . .110 

y taste in . . . 107 

vellmn . . . 137 

velvet . . 136 

Flexible backs, preparing for 
covering .... 84 

y finishing . . . 113 

, marking-up . .16 

, mock, Iming-up . . 86 

, not to shew . 24, 84 

) not to shew, lining up 85 

sewing . . .20 

Folding .... 1 
Folding maps • . .10 

182 ISDEX. ^^1 



rolding-machine (cut) . 3 

Grecian design . 33, 46, 14a'^H 

Folding-stick . . . 1 . 

Green colour for sprinkling. 65 ^^| 

FoUo 2 

tree marble . 164 ^^1 

Foredge cutting ... 50 

Qrej mill-boarda ... 49 ^H 

Forwarding . . , 28 

Grinding colours for marbling 67 ^^M 

Francoifl I. ... six 

Grolier 102, sviii ^^M 

French dab ... 155 

(design) . 103, iix_^B 

idea of bookbinding . 105 

method of binding . 105 

Ground for calf colouring . 150 

paring knife . . 88 

for gilt edges . , 75 

Froth on Bize . . .132 

Guardii^ against insects. 

FuUgUtback . . 119,127 

Guarding plates ... ft ^^h 

GoBQon . . . . xi. 

Guards, object of . 1(^^H 

.binding of . . 104 

Gum, dissolving . . 67^^H 

(design) . . 19,78 

dragon . ^^H 

Gathering ^ .... 4 

, quantity o^ for marblii^ S^^^H 

on plates . Ub^^H 

Generid ontline . . .167 

Gemiar, gold leaf . . 74 

Giggering . . . .114 
Giltedgea .... 73 

Half-morocco, finishing . ll^^^| 

Half-bound books . »3!^H 

,dull .... 76 

Hammering slips into boards &3^^H 

, marbling under . . 73 

Hand-finished covera . . lOg^^l 

, marbling on . .73 

Hand-colonred calf 


.tooled . . 73,77 

Hand-flnisliing . 

. lOA^H 

in ronnd . . .73 

Hand lettera 

108-118 ^H 

on red 73,77 

Harleian . 

. xxi^l 

oat top .... 36 

(design) 93, 147, zxii^H 

Glaire . . . .109 

Hatton's mpping press . M^H 
Head^band, as done in I5tli ^^M 

water ... 74 

Glairing a large Huriae* . 132 

century .... SJ^^I 

Glass for paring on , .88 

, beading 

Glne . . . . . 163 

, cat-gut for 

ataJning ... 84 

, diffic allies . 

Glueing -np . . .40 

, fastening off 

Gold cushion . . 73, 109 

, finishing 

finishing . . Ill, 115 

, machine made 

knife .... 74 

— -^ ribbon '. 

leaf, laying on edgia . 76 


leaf . . . 74j 109 


leaf, cutting . . 76 

' g?jg J 

leaf, thiiiknesa of . 74 

rag . . . .108 

, stuck on . 

Golden rules for the preser- 

, vellum for 

vation of books . . 164 

^j working . 

Graining . . . .134 

Head-l»nding . 

Graining-np morocco . . 88 


Head, cutting . . S(|^^l 




Hemy III., bindings of . 103 

Heat for tools . . .117 

Historical books . . .92 

Holding paring knife . . 88 

Holes, filling np, in back . 85 

in boards, making . 53 

Hollow backs . . .83 
How to tell a flexibly sewn 

book when bound . . 24 

How to nse a pallet . . 113 

Hydraulic press (cut) . .13 

Idea of bookbinding in France 105 
Imitating old leather . . 88 
Imitation calf . . .89 

head-band . . .82 

leather ... 87 

morocco . . .87 

morocco, finishing . 122 

russia . . . .92 

Implements used for cutting 57 
India-rubber for finishing . 108 

for photographs . .159 

Inlaid work . . .122 
Insects in books . . . 160 

, poison for . . . 162 

Inside finishing . . . 121 

boards, finishing . . 131 

Interleaving . . .14 
Introduction of the blocking 

press . . . . 141 
Irons, polishing . . . 108 
Italian bindings . . . 102 

school . . .XX 

tools . . . .102 

Joint . 
Joints, cloth 
, morocco 

. 3 


. 95 

Kettle stitch 
Keys, sewing 

King's yellow for marbling . 

Knife and straight edge tor 

cutting .... 

— , burr on . . . 

-, French paring 




Knocking-down iron . 
Knocking-up bands 
Knowlec^e for finishing 


. 85 
. 107 

Lake for marbling . . 67 
Lamp black for marbling . 67 
Lard .... 110, 114 
Law books . . . .92 
Lay cords . . . .20 
Laying on gold . . . 117 

on goH leaf . . 76 

Lead type . ' . . . 118 
Leather . . . .87 

, acids on . . . 148 

, cutting through . . 88 

^, imitation . . .87 

, turning in . . .89 

Leathers for antique work . 113 
Leatherette . . . .87 
Lemon juice for leather . 90 
Lettering . . . 107-118 

pieces . . . 126 

Library, appearance of . 92 

bindmg . . . 158 

in ancient Jerusalem . xv 

Lined tools .... 102 
Linear designs . . . 102 
Lining boards, for half bind- 
ing and whole binding . 47 
Lining-up . . . .83 

, flexible backs . . 85 

Lithographic stone for paring 88 

Mackinly .... xxii 
Making band-stuff . . 84 

boards . . .48 

holes in boards . . 53 

Maps, folding . . .10 

, throwing out . . 8 

Marble, comb or nonpareil . 69 

edges ... . 66-70 

^, shell . . . .69 

, Spanish . . .69 

, spot • . . . 68 

for paring on . .88 

paper, cost of . .71 

paper to edges, trans- 
ferring . . • .71 





Marbled paper . 

. 29 

Morocco, preparation 


Marbling, colours for . 

. 67 

blocking . 

. 146 

, difficulties in 

. 68 

, white 

. 90 

, gnm for 

. 67 

Mosaic work 

. 122 

on caK 

. 152 

Mounting maps . 

. 80 

on gilt edges 

. 73 


. 158 

, order of coIouts in 

. 68 

Mnll .... 

. 85 


. 69 

, requisites for 

under gilt edges . 

unsized paper 

. 66 

Natural History, tools for . 107 

. 73 
. 69 

Naval books 

. 92 

. 87 

writing paper 

. 69 

Nonpareil marble 

. 69 



Non-porous leather 

. 115 

Marks, printer's . 

. 102 

Margins of sheets 

. 1 


. 2 

Masterpieces of binding 

. XX 

Old books, beating 


Materia.lfl required for fmish- 

, rolling 


ing .... 

. 108 

, sewing with head- 

-band 22 

used for covering 

. 87 

Old method of using a 

block 106 

Medium for finishing . 

. 115 

Order of colours in mai 

bling 69 

Mending old books 

. 159 

Ordinary sewing . 

. 23 

Method of binding in France 105 

Original finishing 

. 106 

of making end papers . 30 

head-band . 

. 80 

of working antique tools 112 

Over-sewing or over-casting. 13 

Mice .... 

. 160 

Oxford vellum . 

. 138 

Middle Ages 

. xvii 

Ox gall for marbling . 

. 67 

Military books . 

. 92 


. 47 

Painted edges 

. 77 

Mill-board cutting machine — 



hand (cut) 

. 49 

Palm leaves, books 

. xvi 

steam (cut) . 

. 50 

Paper, cobb . 

. 28 


. 101 

, coloured paste . 

. 30 

Missing sheets 

. 14 

, end . • 

. 28 

Mitred back 


, marbled 

. 29 

Mixture for finishing . 

. 114 

, marbling . 

. 70 

Mock flexible 

. 86 

, printed and fancy . 30 

Monastic bindings 

. 101 

, surface . < 

. 28 



Parchment . . 87, 90, 138 


. Ill 

, vegetable . 

. 138 


. 101 


. 87 

as binders . 

. xvi 

Paste .... 

. 162 


. 87 

Paste- water . 

. 117 

, antique 

flexible, finishing 

. Ill 

Pasting down 


. 113 

first and last sheel 

b up . 32 

, graining up 

. 88 

single leaves 

. 11 

, imitation . 

. 87 

with a brush 

. 31 


. 95 

Payne, Koger 

. xzi 

lettering pieces . 

. 126 

Perfection in covering . 

. 90 



Persian design . 
Picric acid . 
Plain colouring edges 
gilt edges . . 


-, coloured 
., guarding . 
-, gum on 
-, placing . 
sticking to book 


Poetical works . 
Poison for insects 
Polished calf sides 
Polishing a back . 
. effect of 

irons . 

Porous leather 

Preparation used for blocking 146 


. 82 
. 158 
. 150 
. 66 
. 73 
. 8 
. 12 
. 9 
. 12 
. 9 



Preparatory to gold work 
Preparing calf back for finish- 

Preparing for covering 

india rubber 

leathers for finishing . 

Press, arming 

, cutting 


., hydraulic (cut) 

, calf books 

-, plates and tins . 
- various size books 



















Press, standing (cut) . 
Printing colours on cloth 
Printer's marks . 

Proof 52 

Pulling to pieces ... 2 
Putting on end papers. . 34 

Quantity of gum for marbling 67 
Quarto .... 2 

Bats . . . . 
Ravages of book-worms 



Eeason for lining boards • 47 
Receipts for making powder 

for finishing . . • 135 
Recovery of waste gold . 108 
Red-ochre .... 64 
Reducing heat of tools . 118 
Refolding .... 2 
Relief to antique work .111 
Religious books . . .111 
Removing a photograph . 159 
Renaissance (design) 4, 15, 27, 39, 

42, 52, 56 

Ribbon head-banding . 

. 81 

Rice for sprinkling 

. 66 

Roan .... 



. 122 

Rods for sprinkling on 

. 151 

Iloger Payne (design) . 

• • • 


. 5 

machine (cut) 

. 6 

old books . 

. 7 

Rolls .... 

. 108 

Roman vellum . 

. 138 

Rose for marbling 

. 67 

Resin for paste . 

. 162 

Round head-band 

. 79 

Rounding . 

. 42 

machine (cut) 

. 43 

Round plough . 

. 36 

Rule for antique work 

. Ill 


. 47 

Run up back 

. 119 



books, pasting down 

. 96 

, mutation . 

. 92 

Salt for glaire 

. 109 

Salts of tartar 

. 149 

Sand for sprinkling . 
Satin, covering with . 

. 64 
. 91 

Sawins-in . 
, depth 

. 16 

. 17 

machine (cut) 

. 18 

Scrapers . . 

. 74 

Scraping edges . 

. 75 

Screw press (cut) 

. 55 

Secretion of precious stones 

in bindings 

. XVI 



Setting head-band 

up a block . 

Sewing . . . . 

y flexible work 

"""""■* JtevB • • • • 

machine (cut) 

of old book with head- 
band • . • . 

, ordinary . 

press (cut) . 

-, two sheets on 


. 145 
. 20 
. 20 
. 20 
. 26 

Shape of a back when rounded 43 

" " . 49 

. 87 


. 14 

. 14 

. 69 

. 114 

. 120 

. 130 

. 132 

. 1 

. 8 

. 91 



. 79 

. 67 

. 132 

. 18 

. 87 

. 71 

. 159 

. 57 

87, 148 











Shears for cutting boards 



f duplicate 

, missing 

Shell, marble 
Side, blind tooling 

finishing in gold 

Sides, finishing . 

, polishing . 

Signatures . 
Signs for collating 
SiBc, covering with 


Sixth century . 

Size for head-band 

for marbling 

-, frothing 
- of cord 
of covers 

Sizing marble paper 

old books . 

Slide knife . 

Smooth calf 

Soiling edge when covering. 


Spanish marble 

Special styles 


Spot marble 

Spring type case 

Sprinkled edges 

Sprinkles, emblematical 

on leather . 

edges in imitation of 




Sprinkling, colours for . 65 
Squaring, or cutting boards 
to ^ze . . . .49 

plates .... 9 

Sta^emeier . . • xxii 
Stams in books . . . 159 

of copperas . . 155 

Standard colour for books . 92 
Standing press (cut) . .11 

press, American (cut) . 15 

Starch for mounting . .158 
Steel punches . . . 123 
Stone jars for marbling . 67 
Straight grain . . .88 
Straining glaire . . .74 
Striped calico for head-banding 81 
Straw boards . . .49 
Stuck on head-band . . 81 
Sweet oil .... 110 
Swelling . . . .22 
Substitute for lettering pieces 126 
Sulphate of iron . . . 149 
Surface paper . . .28 

Tail, xjutting . . .59 
Taking size of books for mill- 

boards . . . .51 
Taste in finishing . 107, 146 
Tearing books in cutting . 58 
Templates .... 124 
Tenon saw . . . .17 
Testing boards when squared 51 

colours for marblmg . 68 

colours for sprinkling . 64 

Test for unsized paper when 

gilding edges ... 75 
Thickness of gold-leaf . 75 

Throwing colours on size . 68 
Throwing-out a map . . 8 
Throw-up backs . . .85 
Tight backs . . .83 

Tins for pressing . . 54 

Title pieces for vellum . 139 
Tooled gilt edges . 73-77 

Tools, azur^ . . . 102 

, degrees of heat . 117-118 

, emblematical . . 107 

for blocking . . 144 



Tools, sticking . 
Transferring marble paper to 
edges . . . . 
Tree marbling 
Trimming . . . . 

board . . . . 

, French method . 


. 114 

letter in Athenaeimi on 
machine (cut) 

Trough for marbling . 
Turmeric . 
Tuming-in leather 
Turpentine for marbling 

for paste 

Two-sheets-on, sewing 
Type .... 

. 37 
. 60 
. 66 
. 150 
. 89 
. 69 
. 162 
. 108 

Uncut edges 

Unsized paper, marbling . / u 
Using a roll with running 
pattern .... 115 


Valuable books, restoring 

Varnish . 

Varnished, plates sticking 

book when 
Varnishing calf sides . 
Vegetable parchment . 
VeUum, artists' . 



drawing boards 
finishing . 

. 134 
. 133 
. 138 
. 138 
. 90 
. 137 

Vellum for head-band . 

, Oxford 

, Roman 

Velvet, covering . 

, finishing . 

f raising pile 

Venetian (design) 
tools . 


Vermilion for marbling 


. 79 
. 138 
. 138 
. 136 
. 91 
xviii, 31, 97 
. 102, 111 
. 117 
. 67 

Walnut shells 
Washing old books 
Waste gold, recovery of 
Weather as a guide to 

finisher . 
Wet medium for finishing 
White mill-boards 

morocco, covering 







Wood pulp boards 

Wooden trough for marbling 66 

Working antique tools . 112 

head-band . . .80 

Works on poetry . . 92 

Wrinkles in back . . 46 

Writing paper, marbling . 70 

Yellow edges . . .66 

for leather . . .150 

Yellow-ochre for marbling . 67 
Young's patent size . . 127 

Zinc trough for marbling . 66 

Dbtdbv Pbibb : J. Datt A Sons, 137, Long Acre.